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Factores psicológicos y salud asociados con un nuevo perfil de jubilados Translated title: Psychological factors and health associated with a new profile of retirees

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      Abstract

      Conforme a los cambios sociales y económicos, la tipología y definición del jubilado va siendo modificada en las últimas décadas. Hoy por hoy no existe un amplio consenso para definir a la persona jubilada como hasta ahora tradicionalmente se había hecho. Así, en diferentes estudios aparecen nuevos términos: nuevo perfil de jubilados (Canes y García, 1989), nueva vejez (Bazo, 1992; 1996; 2000) y nuevos jubilados (De Zayas, 1996). El objetivo principal de esta investigación ha sido analizar el grado de interacción que pudieran tener determinadas variables sociales, psicológicas y de salud en la tipología de un posible nuevo perfil del jubilado. Participaron en este estudio un total de 161 jubilados (mayores de 55 años) sin deterioro cognitivo. Un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) muestra que algunas variables de tipo social, psicológicas y de salud (por ejemplo, niveles bajos de ansiedad y depresión, buenas relaciones sociales, actividad física, buena salud y recursos económicos) participan de esa interacción con lo que podríamos denominar un nuevo perfil del jubilado, de especial interés en el ámbito de las organizaciones.

      Translated abstract

      Changes in society and the economy have reshaped the profile and definition of senior citizen over the past few decades. Unlike the traditional definition of the past, today there is no broad consensus on what it means to be a senior. New terms have appeared in different studies: new profile of seniors (Canes and García, 1989), new ageing (Bazo, 1992; 1996; 2000) and new retired (De Zayas, 1996). The primary aim of this study was to analyze the extent of interaction between certain social, psychological and health variables in the typology of a possible new profile for the retired. A total of 161 seniors (over 55) with no cognitive impairment took part in the study. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that some of the social, psychological and health-related variables (e.g., low anxiety and depression levels, good social relations, physical activity, good health, economic resources) play a role in this interaction. Therefore, a new profile for the retired could be portrayed, that would be particularly relevant for the organizations field.

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      Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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          Gender differences in self-concept and psychological well-being in old age: a meta-analysis.

          Because of women's higher risk of being widowed, having health problems, and needing care, one might expect them to have a more negative self-concept and lower subjective well-being (SWB). However, women may also have greater access to sources of SWB (e.g., relations to adult children) and may engage in processes to protect the self (e.g., lowered aspirations). Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 300 empirical studies on gender differences in life satisfaction, happiness, self-esteem, loneliness, subjective health, and subjective age in late adulthood. Older women reported significantly lower SWB and less positive self-concept than men on all measures, except subjective age, although gender accounted for less than 1% of the variance in well-being and self-concept. Smaller gender differences in SWB were found in younger than in older groups. Statistically controlling for gender differences in widowhood, health, and socioeconomic status decreased gender differences in SWB. Cohort differences in SWB are reported as well.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            orgnameUniversidad del País Vasco orgdiv1Facultad de Psicología orgdiv2Departamento de Procesos
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rpto
            Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones
            Rev. psicol. trab. organ.
            Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
            1576-5962
            2174-0534
            2008
            : 24
            : 3
            : 303-324
            S1576-59622008000300003

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 86, Pages: 22
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            Product Information: SciELO Spain

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