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      The Effectiveness of Anti- R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

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          This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi ( R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti- R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Deficiency of the humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants immunized at age 6 months.

          Measles causes serious morbidity in infants, with the highest risk among those who are 6 to 12 months of age. In the United States, measles vaccine has been given at age 12 to 15 months to minimize interference by passive antibodies and to achieve the high seroprevalence required for herd immunity. Infants of mothers with vaccine-induced immunity may lose passively acquired antibodies before 12 months, leaving them susceptible to measles infection. To assess the immunogenicity of measles vaccine in infants younger than 12 months. Cohort study conducted before and after measles immunization. Pediatric clinic in Palo Alto, Calif. Infants 6 (n = 27), 9 (n = 26), and 12 (n = 34) months of age were enrolled; 72 provided both initial and follow-up samples. Evaluation of immunogenicity before and 12 weeks after measles vaccination, including measles neutralizing antibody titers, measles-specific T-cell proliferation, and cytokine profiles. Measles neutralizing antibodies were present before vaccination in 52% (12/23), 35% (7/20), and 0% (0/22) of 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants, respectively. In the absence of detectable passive antibodies, geometric mean titers after vaccination were significantly lower in 6-month-old infants compared with 9-month-old infants (27 vs 578, P = .01) and 12-month-old infants (27 vs 972, P=.001). The seroconversion rate, defined as a 4-fold rise in antibody titer, in these 6-month-old infants was only 67%, and only 36% of these infants achieved seroprotective neutralizing antibody titers of 120 or higher after vaccination compared with 100% of 9- and 12-month-old infants lacking detectable passive antibody prior to vaccination. T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses to measles did not differ with age. Humoral immunity was deficient in 6-month-old infants given measles vaccine, even in the absence of detectable passively acquired neutralizing antibodies. Comparison of their responses with those of 9- and 12-month-old infants indicates that a developmental maturation of the immune response to measles may occur during the first year of life, which affects the immunogenicity of measles vaccine.
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            Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infections: a review.

             Shinji Takai (1997)
            An overview of epidemiology of R. equi infection in foals is presented, emphasizing the importance of the virulence-associated antigens and plasmids as epidemiological markers. The monoclonal antibody-based colony blot test has been developed to identify rapidly and accurately virulent R. equi. Epidemiological studies conducted during the recent 5 years have revealed that: (1) avirulent R. equi are widespread in the feces of horses and their environment on every farm; (2) the feces of horses and the environment of the horse farms having endemic R. equi infections demonstrated heavy contamination with virulent R. equi, but the farms without the problem did not, thus suggesting that foals bred on a farm with endemic disease are exposed more frequently to virulent R. equi in their environment than those of a farm without the problem; (3) only virulent R. equi are isolated from lesions of naturally infected foals, showing that natural infections in foals are principally by virulent R. equi, but not avirulent organisms; (4) infected foals which constantly shed large quantities of virulent R. equi in their feces are the major source of virulent R. equi, which this may be the mechanism of progressive development of infection on farms with a history of the disease. At present, farms with a potential for endemic infection can be distinguished on the basis of the contamination with virulent R. equi, so regular examination of foals and their environment by virulence markers might be the most practical approach to control R. equi infection on endemic farms.
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              Manual for histologic staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology


                Author and article information

                The Scientific World Journal
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                3 April 2014
                : 2014
                1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42075 Konya, Turkey
                2Program of Food Technology, Sarayonu Vocational School, University of Selcuk, 42075 Konya, Turkey
                3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42075 Konya, Turkey
                4Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Selcuk, 42075 Konya, Turkey
                Author notes

                Academic Editors: T. Betakova, V. Fedorenko, Y. Mu, Z. Shi, and H. Zaraket

                Copyright © 2014 Osman Erganis et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
                Award ID: 108 G 030
                Research Article



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