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      The crude oil biodegradation activity of Candida strains isolated from oil-reservoirs soils in Saudi Arabia

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          Abstract

          Crude oil (petroleum) is a naturally occurring complex composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted sites is restricted by the biodiversity of indigenous microflora. They possess complementary substrates required for degrading the different hydrocarbons. In the current study, four yeast strains were isolated from different oil reservoirs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The oil-biodegradation ability of these isolates showed variable oxidation effects on multiple hydrocarbons. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed morphological changes in Candida isolates compared to the original structures. The drop-collapse and oil emulsification assays showed that yeast strains affected the physical properties of tested hydrocarbons. The content of biosurfactants produced by isolated strains was quantified in the presence of different hydrocarbons to confirm the oil displacement activity. The recovery assays included acid precipitation, solvent extraction, ammonium sulfate, and zinc sulfate precipitation methods. All these methods revealed that the amount of biosurfactants correlates to the type of tested hydrocarbons, where the highest amount was produced in crude oil contaminated samples. In conclusion, the study highlights the importance of Candida isolated from contaminated soils for bioremediation of petroleum oil pollution. That raises the need for further analyses on the microbes/hydrocarbon degradation dynamics.

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          Scientists’ warning to humanity: microorganisms and climate change

          In the Anthropocene, in which we now live, climate change is impacting most life on Earth. Microorganisms support the existence of all higher trophic life forms. To understand how humans and other life forms on Earth (including those we are yet to discover) can withstand anthropogenic climate change, it is vital to incorporate knowledge of the microbial ‘unseen majority’. We must learn not just how microorganisms affect climate change (including production and consumption of greenhouse gases) but also how they will be affected by climate change and other human activities. This Consensus Statement documents the central role and global importance of microorganisms in climate change biology. It also puts humanity on notice that the impact of climate change will depend heavily on responses of microorganisms, which are essential for achieving an environmentally sustainable future.
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            Factors limiting bioremediation technologies

            R Boopathy (2000)
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              Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

              In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                falotibi@ksu.edu.sa
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 June 2022
                23 June 2022
                2022
                : 12
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.56302.32, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 5396, Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, , King Saud University, ; P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh, 11495 Saudi Arabia
                Article
                14836
                10.1038/s41598-022-14836-0
                9226172
                35739163
                ebc1ea66-1976-439f-9313-7f6a2e7de74b
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011665, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University;
                Award ID: RSP-2021/114
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                ecology,microbiology,biogeochemistry,environmental sciences,natural hazards
                Uncategorized
                ecology, microbiology, biogeochemistry, environmental sciences, natural hazards

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