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      Study on chemical constituents of Folium Artemisiae argyi Carbonisatum, toxicity evaluation on zebrafish and intestinal hemostasis

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          Abstract

          Folium Artemisiae argyi Carbonisatum (FAAC) is a traditional medicine widely used in clinic. It has the effect of hemostasis by warming meridians. In order to further explore the chemical composition and biological activity of FAAC, the methanol extract of FAAC was isolated and purified by open column and high- performance liquid chromatography. and the complete structure was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and LREI-MS for the first time, namely rutin, quercetin and octacosanol respectively. Initially the toxic effect of methanol extract of FAAC on zebrafish was evaluated by observing the phenotypic characteristics, spontaneous twitch times, heart rate, hatching rate, the distance of SV-BA and cardiomyocyte apoptosis of zebrafish. The results showed that FAAC has embryonic development toxicity and cardiotoxicity when it was higher than 62.5 μg/mL. Meanwhile, the hemostatic effect of methanol extract of FAAC was compared with FAA (Folium Artemisia argyi) by zebrafish intestinal bleeding model originally. The results showed that the hemostatic effect of the medium and high concentration dose groups (3.0 and 30.0 μg/mL) was enhanced for both FAAC and FAA. This study provided an experimental basis for the clinical application of FAAC.

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          A critical review of the data related to the safety of quercetin and lack of evidence of in vivo toxicity, including lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic properties.

          Quercetin is a naturally-occurring flavonol (a member of the flavonoid family of compounds) that has a long history of consumption as part of the normal human diet. Because a number of biological properties of quercetin may be beneficial to human health, interest in the addition of this flavonol to various traditional food products has been increasing. Prior to the use of quercetin in food applications that would increase intake beyond that from naturally-occurring levels of the flavonol in the typical Western diet, its safety needs to be established or confirmed. This review provides a critical examination of the scientific literature associated with the safety of quercetin. Results of numerous genotoxicity and mutagenicity, short- and long-term animal, and human studies are reviewed in the context of quercetin exposure in vivo. To reconcile results of in vitro studies, which consistently demonstrated quercetin-related mutagenicity to the absence of carcinogenicity in vivo, the mechanisms that lead to the apparent in vitro mutagenicity, and those that ensure absence of quercetin toxicity in vivo are discussed. The weight of the available evidence supports the safety of quercetin for addition to food.
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            Feed, Microbiota, and Gut Immunity: Using the Zebrafish Model to Understand Fish Health

            Aquafeed companies aim to provide solutions to the various challenges related to nutrition and health in aquaculture. Solutions to promote feed efficiency and growth, as well as improving the fish health or protect the fish gut from inflammation may include dietary additives such as prebiotics and probiotics. The general assumption is that feed additives can alter the fish microbiota which, in turn, interacts with the host immune system. However, the exact mechanisms by which feed influences host-microbe-immune interactions in fish still remain largely unexplored. Zebrafish rapidly have become a well-recognized animal model to study host-microbe-immune interactions because of the diverse set of research tools available for these small cyprinids. Genome editing technologies can create specific gene-deficient zebrafish that may contribute to our understanding of immune functions. Zebrafish larvae are optically transparent, which allows for in vivo imaging of specific (immune) cell populations in whole transgenic organisms. Germ-free individuals can be reared to study host-microbe interactions. Altogether, these unique zebrafish features may help shed light on the mechanisms by which feed influences host-microbe-immune interactions and ultimately fish health. In this review, we first describe the anatomy and function of the zebrafish gut: the main surface where feed influences host-microbe-immune interactions. Then, we further describe what is currently known about the molecular pathways that underlie this interaction in the zebrafish gut. Finally, we summarize and critically review most of the recent research on prebiotics and probiotics in relation to alterations of zebrafish microbiota and immune responses. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish as an animal model for other fish species to study feed effects on host-microbe-immune interactions.
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              Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study.

              Intake of dietary flavonols and flavones was inversely associated with risk for cardiovascular disease in several epidemiologic studies. This may have been due to effects on hemostasis because flavonoids have been reported to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. We indeed found that 2500 micromol/L of the flavonol quercetin and the flavone apigenin significantly inhibited collagen- and ADP-induced aggregation in platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets by approximately 80-97%. However, lower concentrations, such as might occur in vivo, had no effect. To test this in vivo we fed 18 healthy volunteers 220 g onions/d providing 114 mg quercetin/d, 5 g dried parsley/d providing 84 mg apigenin/d, or a placebo for 7 d each in a randomized crossover experiment with each treatment period lasting 2 wk. Onion consumption raised mean plasma quercetin concentrations to 1.5 micromol/L; plasma apigenin could not be measured. No significant effects of onions or parsley were found on platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, factor VII, or other hemostatic variables. We conclude that the antiaggregatory effects of flavonoids seen in vitro are due to concentrations that cannot be attained in vivo. Effects of dietary flavonols and flavones on cardiovascular risk are possibly not mediated by hemostatic variables.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Saudi Pharm J
                Saudi Pharm J
                Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal : SPJ
                Elsevier
                1319-0164
                2213-7475
                02 March 2022
                May 2022
                02 March 2022
                : 30
                : 5
                : 532-543
                Affiliations
                School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, Jilin, China
                Author notes
                Article
                S1319-0164(22)00059-7
                10.1016/j.jsps.2022.02.018
                9177460
                35693441
                ebc4383a-902b-40fb-86f9-f3a1f4a347e4
                © 2022 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 9 January 2022
                : 27 February 2022
                Categories
                Original Article

                folium artemisiae argyi carbonisatum,chemical composition,zebrafish,toxicity,hemostasis

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