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      Immune crosstalk in cancer progression and metastatic spread: a complex conversation

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      Nature Reviews Immunology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Most cited references 94

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          Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis.

          Metastasis is a multistage process that requires cancer cells to escape from the primary tumour, survive in the circulation, seed at distant sites and grow. Each of these processes involves rate-limiting steps that are influenced by non-malignant cells of the tumour microenvironment. Many of these cells are derived from the bone marrow, particularly the myeloid lineage, and are recruited by cancer cells to enhance their survival, growth, invasion and dissemination. This Review describes experimental data demonstrating the role of the microenvironment in metastasis, identifies areas for future research and suggests possible new therapeutic avenues.
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            Batf3 deficiency reveals a critical role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in cytotoxic T cell immunity.

            Although in vitro observations suggest that cross-presentation of antigens is mediated primarily by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, in vivo analysis has been hampered by the lack of systems that selectively eliminate this cell lineage. We show that deletion of the transcription factor Batf3 ablated development of CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, allowing us to examine their role in immunity in vivo. Dendritic cells from Batf3-/- mice were defective in cross-presentation, and Batf3-/- mice lacked virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses to West Nile virus. Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3-/- mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection.
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              Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer.

              The role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the early metastatic invasion of colorectal cancer is unknown. We studied pathological signs of early metastatic invasion (venous emboli and lymphatic and perineural invasion) in 959 specimens of resected colorectal cancer. The local immune response within the tumor was studied by flow cytometry (39 tumors), low-density-array real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay (75 tumors), and tissue microarrays (415 tumors). Univariate analysis showed significant differences in disease-free and overall survival according to the presence or absence of histologic signs of early metastatic invasion (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that an early conventional pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.001) and the absence of early metastatic invasion (P=0.04) were independently associated with increased survival. As compared with tumors with signs of early metastatic invasion, tumors without such signs had increased infiltrates of immune cells and increased levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for products of type 1 helper effector T cells (CD8, T-BET [T-box transcription factor 21], interferon regulatory factor 1, interferon-gamma, granulysin, and granzyme B) but not increased levels of inflammatory mediators or immunosuppressive molecules. The two types of tumors had significant differences in the levels of expression of 65 combinations of T-cell markers, and hierarchical clustering showed that markers of T-cell migration, activation, and differentiation were increased in tumors without signs of early metastatic invasion. The latter type of tumors also had increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, ranging from early memory (CD45RO+CCR7-CD28+CD27+) to effector memory (CD45RO+CCR7-CD28-CD27-) T cells. The presence of high levels of infiltrating memory CD45RO+ cells, evaluated immunohistochemically, correlated with the absence of signs of early metastatic invasion, a less advanced pathological stage, and increased survival. Signs of an immune response within colorectal cancers are associated with the absence of pathological evidence of early metastatic invasion and with prolonged survival. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                February 5 2020
                Article
                10.1038/s41577-019-0271-z
                © 2020

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