Blog
About

31
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Type VII secretion — mycobacteria show the way

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Recent evidence shows that mycobacteria have developed novel and specialized secretion systems for the transport of extracellular proteins across their hydrophobic, and highly impermeable, cell wall. Strikingly, mycobacterial genomes encode up to five of these transport systems. Two of these systems, ESX-1 and ESX-5, are involved in virulence - they both affect the cell-to-cell migration of pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we discuss this novel secretion pathway and consider variants that are present in various Gram-positive bacteria. Given the unique composition of this secretion system, and its general importance, we propose that, in line with the accepted nomenclature, it should be called type VII secretion.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 64

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Evaluation of a nutrient starvation model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence by gene and protein expression profiling.

          The search for new TB drugs that rapidly and effectively sterilize the tissues and are thus able to shorten the duration of chemotherapy from the current 6 months has been hampered by a lack of understanding of the metabolism of the bacterium when in a 'persistent' or latent form. Little is known about the condition in which the bacilli survive, although laboratory models have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can exist in a non-growing, drug-resistant state that may mimic persistence in vivo. Using nutrient starvation, we have established a model in which M. tuberculosis arrests growth, decreases its respiration rate and is resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and metronidazole. We have used microarray and proteome analysis to investigate the response of M. tuberculosis to nutrient starvation. Proteome analysis of 6-week-starved cultures revealed the induction of several proteins. Microarray analysis enabled us to monitor gene expression during adaptation to nutrient starvation and confirmed the changes seen at the protein level. This has provided evidence for slowdown of the transcription apparatus, energy metabolism, lipid biosynthesis and cell division in addition to induction of the stringent response and several other genes that may play a role in maintaining long-term survival within the host. Thus, we have generated a model with which we can search for agents active against persistent M. tuberculosis and revealed a number of potential targets expressed under these conditions.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Toward the structural genomics of complexes: crystal structure of a PE/PPE protein complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

            The developing science called structural genomics has focused to date mainly on high-throughput expression of individual proteins, followed by their purification and structure determination. In contrast, the term structural biology is used to denote the determination of structures, often complexes of several macromolecules, that illuminate aspects of biological function. Here we bridge structural genomics to structural biology with a procedure for determining protein complexes of previously unknown function from any organism with a sequenced genome. From computational genomic analysis, we identify functionally linked proteins and verify their interaction in vitro by coexpression/copurification. We illustrate this procedure by the structural determination of a previously unknown complex between a PE and PPE protein from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, members of protein families that constitute approximately 10% of the coding capacity of this genome. The predicted complex was readily expressed, purified, and crystallized, although we had previously failed in expressing individual PE and PPE proteins on their own. The reason for the failure is clear from the structure, which shows that the PE and PPE proteins mate along an extended apolar interface to form a four-alpha-helical bundle, where two of the alpha-helices are contributed by the PE protein and two by the PPE protein. Our entire procedure for the identification, characterization, and structural determination of protein complexes can be scaled to a genome-wide level.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis.

              The live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for the prevention of disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was derived from the closely related virulent tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. Although the BCG vaccine has been one of the most widely used vaccines in the world for over 40 years, the genetic basis of BCG's attenuation has never been elucidated. We employed subtractive genomic hybridization to identify genetic differences between virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and avirulent BCG. Three distinct genomic regions of difference (designated RD1 to RD3) were found to be deleted from BCG, and the precise junctions and DNA sequence of each deletion were determined. RD3, a 9.3-kb genomic segment present in virulent laboratory strains of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, was absent from BCG and 84% of virulent clinical isolates. RD2, a 10.7-kb DNA segment containing a novel repetitive element and the previously identified mpt-64 gene, was conserved in all virulent laboratory and clinical tubercle bacilli tested and was deleted only from substrains derived from the original BCG Pasteur strain after 1925. Thus, the RD2 deletion occurred after the original derivation of BCG. RD1, a 9.5-kb DNA segment found to be deleted from all BCG substrains, was conserved in all virulent laboratory and clinical isolates of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis tested. The reintroduction of RD1 into BCG repressed the expression of at least 10 proteins and resulted in a protein expression profile almost identical to that of virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These data indicate a role for RD1 in the regulation of multiple genetic loci, suggesting that the loss of virulence by BCG is due to a regulatory mutation. These findings may be applicable to the rational design of a new attenuated tuberculosis vaccine and the development of new diagnostic tests to distinguish BCG vaccination from tuberculosis infection.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Microbiology
                Nat Rev Microbiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1740-1526
                1740-1534
                November 2007
                November 2007
                : 5
                : 11
                : 883-891
                Article
                10.1038/nrmicro1773
                17922044
                © 2007

                Comments

                Comment on this article