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      Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Patients on Hemodiafiltration

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          Abstract

          Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are common features in hemodialysis patients. However, research results on the long-term influence of hemodiafiltration (HDF) on oxidative stress and inflammation are limited.

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          Most cited references 30

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          C-reactive protein and albumin as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease.

          High C-reactive protein (CRP) and hypoalbuminemia are associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with kidney failure. There are limited data evaluating the relationships between CRP, albumin, and outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study was a randomized controlled trial conducted between 1989 and 1993. CRP was measured in frozen samples taken at baseline. Survival status and cause of death, up to December 31, 2000, were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable Cox models were used to examine the relationship of CRP [stratified into high CRP > or =3.0 mg/L (N= 414) versus low CRP<3.0 mg/L (N= 283)], and serum albumin, with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Median follow-up time was 125 months, all-cause mortality was 20% (N= 138) and cardiovascular mortality was 10% (N= 71). In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographic, cardiovascular and kidney disease factors, both high CRP (HR, 95% CI = 1.56, 1.07-2.29) and serum albumin (HR = 0.94 per 0.1 g/dL increase, 95% CI = 0.89-0.99) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. High CRP (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.13-3.31), but not serum albumin (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87-1.02), was an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Both high CRP and low albumin, measured in CKD stages 3 and 4, are independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. High CRP, but not serum albumin, is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. These results suggest that high CRP and hypoalbuminemia provide prognostic information independent of each other in CKD.
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            Effects of high-flux hemodialysis on clinical outcomes: results of the HEMO study.

            Among the 1846 patients in the HEMO Study, chronic high-flux dialysis did not significantly affect the primary outcome of the all-cause mortality (ACM) rate or the main secondary composite outcomes, including the rates of first cardiac hospitalization or ACM, first infectious hospitalization or ACM, first 15% decrease in serum albumin levels or ACM, or all non-vascular access-related hospitalizations. The high-flux intervention, however, seemed to be associated with reduced risks of specific cardiac-related events. The relative risks (RR) for the high-flux arm, compared with the low-flux arm, were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65 to 0.99] for cardiac death and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.00) for the composite of first cardiac hospitalization or cardiac death. Also, the effect of high-flux dialysis on ACM seemed to vary, depending on the duration of prior dialysis. This report presents secondary analyses to further explore the relationship between the flux intervention and the duration of dialysis with respect to various outcomes. The patients were stratified into a short-duration group and a long-duration group, on the basis of the mean duration of dialysis of 3.7 yr before randomization. In the subgroup that had been on dialysis for >3.7 yr, randomization to high-flux dialysis was associated with lower risks of ACM (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.86; P = 0.001), the composite of first albumin level decrease or ACM (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.005), and cardiac deaths (RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.92; P = 0.016), compared with low-flux dialysis. No significant differences were observed in outcomes related to infection for either duration subgroup, however, and the trends for beneficial effects of high-flux dialysis on ACM rates were considerably weakened when the years of dialysis during the follow-up phase were combined with the prestudy years of dialysis in the analysis. For the subgroup of patients with <3.7 yr of dialysis before the study, assignment to high-flux dialysis had no significant effect on any of the examined clinical outcomes. These data suggest that high-flux dialysis might have a beneficial effect on cardiac outcomes. Because these results are derived from multiple statistical comparisons, however, they must be interpreted with caution. The subgroup results that demonstrate that patients with different durations of dialysis are affected differently by high-flux dialysis are interesting and require further study for confirmation.
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              Oxidative stress and haemodialysis: role of inflammation and duration of dialysis treatment.

              Oxidative stress has long been demonstrated in haemodialysis patients. However, the factors influencing their oxidative status have not been characterized extensively in these patients. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of a large number of factors known to be associated with oxidative stress. In the present cross-sectional study, we determined the plasma levels of lipid and protein oxidation markers in 31 non-smoking haemodialysis patients and 18 non-smoking healthy subjects, together with various components of the antioxidant system at the plasma and erythrocyte level. No influence of age, diabetes or iron overload on oxidative markers and plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant systems was detected in these haemodialysis patients. The lack of an association between iron overload and oxidative status may be related to the lower level of plasma ascorbate in haemodialysis patients, since ascorbate favours the generation of free iron from ferritin-bound iron. Interestingly, plasma C reactive protein (CRP) levels measured by highly sensitive CRP assay were correlated positively with plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (r=0.38, P<0.04) and negatively with plasma alpha-tocopherol levels (r=-0.46, P<0.01). Moreover, significant inverse correlations were observed between duration of dialysis treatment and plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol (r=-0.49, P<0.02) and ubiquinol (r=-0.40, P<0.05). Our results suggest that inflammatory status and duration of dialysis treatment are the most important factors relating to oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2008
                October 2008
                02 July 2008
                : 28
                : 6
                : 949-957
                Affiliations
                aNephrology Department, A. Fleming Hospital and bHematology Department, Pendeli Pediatric Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Article
                142724 Am J Nephrol 2008;28:949–957
                10.1159/000142724
                18594136
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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