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      Crystallization Control of Methylammonium‐Free Perovskite in Two‐Step Deposited Printable Triple‐Mesoscopic Solar Cells

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          Abstract

          The evolution from the original methylammonium (MA)‐ to formamidinium (FA)‐dominated perovskite makes a crucial contribution to improve the photoelectric performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in a decade. However, to obtain α‐FAPbI 3, annealing temperature above 100 °C is essential. In addition, it is still challenging to deposit a uniform and high‐quality FA‐based perovskite absorber in printable triple‐mesoscopic PSC due to the complicated mesoscopic structure. Herein, a low‐temperature, two‐step sequential deposition method is used for pure FAPbI 3 perovskite in printable triple‐mesoscopic PSC. By using different lead sources, the crystallization and morphology of lead iodide (PbI 2) are finely controlled, which modulates the crystallization and pore filling of perovskite in mesoscopic structure. The improved interface contact promotes the transfer of charge carrier from perovskite to TiO 2. With the further introduction of cesium bromide (CsBr) into lead precursor, a power conversion efficiency of 16.24% is achieved. This study provides a deeper understanding of the pore filling and crystallization for both PbI 2 and perovskite, and helps explore and optimize the deposition process of perovskite in mesoscopic structure.

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          Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells.

          Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3) and CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3), were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO(2) films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH(3)NH(3)PbBr(3)-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.
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            Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells

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              Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells.

              Following pioneering work, solution-processable organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites-such as CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I)-have attracted attention as light-harvesting materials for mesoscopic solar cells. So far, the perovskite pigment has been deposited in a single step onto mesoporous metal oxide films using a mixture of PbX2 and CH3NH3X in a common solvent. However, the uncontrolled precipitation of the perovskite produces large morphological variations, resulting in a wide spread of photovoltaic performance in the resulting devices, which hampers the prospects for practical applications. Here we describe a sequential deposition method for the formation of the perovskite pigment within the porous metal oxide film. PbI2 is first introduced from solution into a nanoporous titanium dioxide film and subsequently transformed into the perovskite by exposing it to a solution of CH3NH3I. We find that the conversion occurs within the nanoporous host as soon as the two components come into contact, permitting much better control over the perovskite morphology than is possible with the previously employed route. Using this technique for the fabrication of solid-state mesoscopic solar cells greatly increases the reproducibility of their performance and allows us to achieve a power conversion efficiency of approximately 15 per cent (measured under standard AM1.5G test conditions on solar zenith angle, solar light intensity and cell temperature). This two-step method should provide new opportunities for the fabrication of solution-processed photovoltaic cells with unprecedented power conversion efficiencies and high stability equal to or even greater than those of today's best thin-film photovoltaic devices.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Solar RRL
                Solar RRL
                Wiley
                2367-198X
                2367-198X
                December 2020
                October 09 2020
                December 2020
                : 4
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430074 Hubei P. R. China
                Article
                10.1002/solr.202000455
                ebd9828b-554c-419c-a962-dac4fa9b9621
                © 2020

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