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      Do Brazilian Pregnant Women Need Iodine Supplementation? A Commentary on the Latest American Thyroid Association Guideline Translated title: Gestantes brasileiras precisam de suplementação de iodo? Comentário sobre a mais recente diretriz da Associação Americana de Tireoide

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          2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

          Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the guidelines for the management of these disorders by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception, and the postpartum period.
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            Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

            As a component of thyroid hormones, iodine is essential for fetal brain development. Although the UK has long been considered iodine replete, increasing evidence suggests that it might now be mildly iodine deficient. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during early pregnancy was associated with an adverse effect on child cognitive development. We analysed mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort by measuring urinary iodine concentration (and creatinine to correct for urine volume) in stored samples from 1040 first-trimester pregnant women. We selected women on the basis of a singleton pregnancy and availability of both a urine sample from the first trimester (defined as ≤13 weeks' gestation; median 10 weeks [IQR 9-12]) and a measure of intelligence quotient (IQ) in the offspring at age 8 years. Women's results for iodine-to-creatinine ratio were dichotomised to less than 150 μg/g or 150 μg/g or more on the basis of WHO criteria for iodine deficiency or sufficiency in pregnancy. We assessed the association between maternal iodine status and child IQ at age 8 years and reading ability at age 9 years. We included 21 socioeconomic, parental, and child factors as confounders. The group was classified as having mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency on the basis of a median urinary iodine concentration of 91·1 μg/L (IQR 53·8-143; iodine-to-creatinine ratio 110 μg/g, IQR 74-170). After adjustment for confounders, children of women with an iodine-to-creatinine ratio of less than 150 μg/g were more likely to have scores in the lowest quartile for verbal IQ (odds ratio 1·58, 95% CI 1·09-2·30; p=0·02), reading accuracy (1·69, 1·15-2·49; p=0·007), and reading comprehension (1·54, 1·06-2·23; p=0·02) than were those of mothers with ratios of 150 μg/g or more. When the less than 150 μg/g group was subdivided, scores worsened ongoing from 150 μg/g or more, to 50-150 μg/g, to less than 50 μg/g. Our results show the importance of adequate iodine status during early gestation and emphasise the risk that iodine deficiency can pose to the developing infant, even in a country classified as only mildly iodine deficient. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the UK should be treated as an important public health issue that needs attention. None. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations.

              Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism in elderly people, and the prevalence of thyroid enlargement and nodularity is high. The average serum TSH tends to decrease with age in such populations caused by the high frequency of autonomous thyroid hormone production. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have shown that hypothyroidism is more prevalent in populations with a high iodine intake. Probably, this is also a complication to thyroid adaptation to iodine intake. Many thyroid processes are inhibited when iodine intake becomes high, and the frequency of apoptosis of follicular cells becomes higher. Abnormal inhibition of thyroid function by high levels of iodine is especially common in people affected by thyroid autoimmunity (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). In populations with high iodine intake, the average serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) tends to increase with age. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in Caucasian populations with a genetically determined high tendency to thyroid autoimmunity. A small tendency to higher serum TSH may be observed already when iodine intake is brought from mildly deficient to adequate, but there is at present no evidence that slightly elevated serum TSH in elderly people leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Even minor differences in iodine intake between populations are associated with differences in the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Both iodine intake levels below and above the recommended interval are associated with an increase in the risk of disease in the population. Optimally, iodine intake of a population should be kept within a relatively narrow interval where iodine deficiency disorders are prevented, but not higher. Monitoring and adjusting of iodine intake in a population is an important part of preventive medicine. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbgo
                Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
                Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet.
                Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-7203
                1806-9339
                January 2018
                : 40
                : 1
                : 1-3
                S0100-72032018000100001
                10.1055/s-0037-1608955

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 3
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                Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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