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      Induction of Hemeoxygenase-1 Reduces Renal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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          The renoprotective mechanisms of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in diabetic nephropathy remain to be investigated. We hypothesize that HO-1 protects the kidney from diabetic insult via lowering renal oxidative stress and inflammation. We used control and diabetic SHR with or without HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) treatment for 6 weeks. Urinary albumin excretion levels were significantly elevated in diabetic SHR compared to control and CoPP significantly attenuated albumin excretion. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed an elevation in TGF- β staining together with increased urinary collagen excretion in diabetic versus control SHR, both of which were reduced with CoPP treatment. Renal oxidative stress markers were greater in diabetic SHR and reduced with CoPP treatment. The increase in renal oxidative stress was associated with an elevation in renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. CoPP treatment also significantly attenuated the markers of renal inflammation in diabetic SHR. In vitro inhibition of HO with stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) increased glomerular NADPH oxidase activity and inflammation and blocked the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CoPP. These data suggest that the reduction of renal injury in diabetic SHR upon induction of HO-1 are associated with decreased renal oxidative stress and inflammation, implicating the role of HO-1 induction as a future treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Nox4 NAD(P)H oxidase mediates hypertrophy and fibronectin expression in the diabetic kidney.

          Renal hypertrophy and extracellular matrix accumulation are early features of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the role of the NAD(P)H oxidase Nox4 in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypertrophy, and fibronectin expression in a rat model of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Phosphorothioated antisense (AS) or sense oligonucleotides for Nox4 were administered for 2 weeks with an osmotic minipump 72 h after streptozotocin treatment. Nox4 protein expression was increased in diabetic kidney cortex compared with non-diabetic controls and was down-regulated in AS-treated animals. AS oligonucleotides inhibited NADPH-dependent ROS generation in renal cortical and glomerular homogenates. ROS generation by intact isolated glomeruli from diabetic animals was increased compared with glomeruli isolated from AS-treated animals. AS treatment reduced whole kidney and glomerular hypertrophy. Moreover, the increased expression of fibronectin protein was markedly reduced in renal cortex including glomeruli of AS-treated diabetic rats. Akt/protein kinase B and ERK1/2, two protein kinases critical for cell growth and hypertrophy, were activated in diabetes, and AS treatment almost abolished their activation. In cultured mesangial cells, high glucose increased NADPH oxidase activity and fibronectin expression, effects that were prevented in cells transfected with AS oligonucleotides. These data establish a role for Nox4 as the major source of ROS in the kidneys during early stages of diabetes and establish that Nox4-derived ROS mediate renal hypertrophy and increased fibronectin expression.
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            Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promotes the development of diabetic renal injury in streptozotocin-treated mice.

            Diabetic nephropathy involves a renal inflammatory response induced by the diabetic milieu. Macrophages accumulate in diabetic kidneys in association with the local upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); however, the contribution of macrophages to renal injury and the importance of MCP-1 to their accrual are unclear. Therefore, we examined the progression of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice deficient in MCP-1 in order to explore the role of MCP-1-mediated macrophage accumulation in the development of diabetic kidney damage. Renal pathology was examined at 2, 8, 12 and 18 weeks after STZ treatment in MCP-1 intact (+/+) and deficient (-/-) mice with equivalent blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels. In MCP-1(+/+) mice, the development of diabetic nephropathy was associated with increased kidney MCP-1 production, which occurred mostly in tubules, consistent with our in vitro finding that elements of the diabetic milieu (high glucose and advanced glycation end products) directly stimulate tubular MCP-1 secretion. Diabetes of 18 weeks resulted in albuminuria and elevated plasma creatinine in MCP-1(+/+) mice, but these aspects of renal injury were largely suppressed in MCP-1(-/-) mice. Protection from nephropathy in diabetic MCP-1(-/-) mice was associated with marked reductions in glomerular and interstitial macrophage accumulation, histological damage and renal fibrosis. Diabetic MCP-1(-/-) mice also had a smaller proportion of kidney macrophages expressing markers of activation (inducible nitric oxide synthase or sialoadhesin) compared to diabetic MCP-1(+/+) mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that MCP-1-mediated macrophage accumulation and activation plays a critical role in the development of STZ-induced mouse diabetic nephropathy.
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              Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-deficient mice are resistant against renal injury after induction of diabetes.

               Jun Wada,  Y. Kido,  S. Okada (2003)
              Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure. Several mechanisms, including activation of protein kinase C, advanced glycation end products, and overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the significance of inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications is poorly understood. Accumulation of macrophages and overexpression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and chemokines are prominent in diabetic human kidney tissues. We previously demonstrated that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mediates macrophage infiltration into the diabetic kidney. In the present study, to investigate the role of ICAM-1 in diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes in ICAM-1-deficient (ICAM-1(-/-)) mice and ICAM-1(+/+) mice with streptozotocin and examined the renal pathology over a period of 6 months. The infiltration of macrophages was markedly suppressed in diabetic ICAM-1(-/-) mice compared with that of ICAM-1(+/+) mice. Urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix expansion were significantly lower in diabetic ICAM-1(-/-) mice than in diabetic ICAM-1(+/+) mice. Moreover, expressions of TGF-beta and type IV collagen in glomeruli were also suppressed in diabetic ICAM-1(-/-) mice. These results suggest that ICAM-1 is critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

                Author and article information

                Int J Hypertens
                International Journal of Hypertension
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                26 February 2012
                : 2012
                1Department of Oral Biology, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
                2Department of Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: David Sacerdoti

                Copyright © 2012 Ahmed A. Elmarakby et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine


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