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      Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissue

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      Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Biodegradable nanoparticles formulated from poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been extensively investigated for sustained and targeted/localized delivery of different agents including plasmid DNA, proteins and peptides and low molecular weight compounds. Research about the mechanism of intracellular uptake of nanoparticles, their trafficking and sorting into different intracellular compartments, and the mechanism of enhanced therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticle-encapsulated agent at cellular level is more recent and is the primary focus of the review. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated rapid escape of PLGA nanoparticles from the endo-lysosomal compartment into cytosol following their uptake. Based on the above mechanism, various potential applications of nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to the cells and tissue are discussed.

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          The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in tumor vasculature: the key role of tumor-selective macromolecular drug targeting

           Hiroshi Maeda (2001)
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            Rapid endo-lysosomal escape of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles: implications for drug and gene delivery.

            The endo-lysosomal escape of drug carriers is crucial to enhancing the efficacy of their macromolecular payload, especially the payloads that are susceptible to lysosomal degradation. Current vectors that enable the endo-lysosomal escape of macromolecules such as DNA are limited by their toxicity and by their ability to carry only limited classes of therapeutic agents. In this paper, we report the rapid (<10 min) endo-lysosomal escape of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) formulated from the copolymers of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The mechanism of rapid escape is by selective reversal of the surface charge of NPs (from anionic to cationic) in the acidic endo-lysosomal compartment, which causes the NPs to interact with the endo-lysosomal membrane and escape into the cytosol. PLGA NPs are able to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including macromolecules such as DNA and low molecular weight drugs such as dexamethasone, intracellularly at a slow rate, which results in a sustained therapeutic effect. PLGA has a number of advantages over other polymers used in drug and gene delivery including biodegradability, biocompatibility, and approval for human use granted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hence PLGA is well suited for sustained intracellular delivery of macromolecules.
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              Magnetofection: enhancing and targeting gene delivery by magnetic force in vitro and in vivo.

              Low efficiencies of nonviral gene vectors, the receptor-dependent host tropism of adenoviral or low titers of retroviral vectors limit their utility in gene therapy. To overcome these deficiencies, we associated gene vectors with superparamagnetic nanoparticles and targeted gene delivery by application of a magnetic field. This potentiated the efficacy of any vector up to several hundred-fold, allowed reduction of the duration of gene delivery to minutes, extended the host tropism of adenoviral vectors to nonpermissive cells and compensated for low retroviral titer. More importantly, the high transduction efficiency observed in vitro was reproduced in vivo with magnetic field-guided local transfection in the gastrointestinal tract and in blood vessels. Magnetofection provides a novel tool for high throughput gene screening in vitro and can help to overcome fundamental limitations to gene therapy in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
                Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
                Elsevier BV
                0169409X
                February 2003
                February 2003
                : 55
                : 3
                : 329-347
                Article
                10.1016/S0169-409X(02)00228-4
                12628320
                © 2003

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