The effects of β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of collagen maturation, have been examined in three models of hypertension in rats. It is shown for the first time that BAPN has a rapidly developing antihypertensive action in rats with renal (one kidney-one clip) hypertension. The compound also lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In both these experiments although BAPN lowered blood pressure it did not affect the hypertension-induced hypertrophy of the aorta. BAPN suppressed the rise in blood pressure during the developing phase of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and in this model the compound also prevented the accompanying aortic hypertrophy. However, another inhibitor of collagen synthesis and maturation, 3,4-dehydroproline, completely suppressed aortic hypertrophy but failed to prevent the rise in blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. It is concluded that: (1) BAPN may have a direct antihypertensive action, and (2) inhibition of aortic hypertrophy alone cannot prevent the rise in blood pressure in the developing phase of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension.