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      Assessing the role of livestock and sympatric wild ruminants in spreading antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter and Salmonella in alpine ecosystems


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          Livestock play an important role as reservoir of enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a health and economic concern worldwide. However, little is known regarding the transmission and maintenance of these pathogens at the wildlife-livestock interface. In this study, we assessed the occurrence, genetic diversity and AMR of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. shed by sympatric free-ranging livestock and a wild herbivore in an alpine ecosystem.


          Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 23.3 % of cattle and 7.7 % of sheep but was not isolated from horses nor Pyrenean chamois ( Rupicapra pyrenaica). Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequent species. A high genetic diversity and certain host specificity of C. jejuni isolates was observed. The main AMR detected in Campylobacter isolates was to nalidixic acid (88.2 %), ciprofloxacin (82.4 %) and tetracycline (82.4 %); only 11.7 % of the isolates were pan-susceptible and 17.6 % were multi-resistant. Salmonella ser. Newport was isolated only from one Pyrenean chamois and was pan-susceptible.


          Results show that free-ranging cattle and sheep are spreaders of Campylobacter as well as their AMR strains in the alpine environment. Therefore, contaminated alpine pastures or streams may constitute a source for the dissemination of AMR enteropathogens. However, apparently, alpine wild ungulates such as Pyrenean chamois play a negligible role in the epidemiology of zoonotic enteropathogens and AMR, and are not potential bioindicators of the burden of alpine environments.

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          Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes.

          Dispersed repetitive DNA sequences have been described recently in eubacteria. To assess the distribution and evolutionary conservation of two distinct prokaryotic repetitive elements, consensus oligonucleotides were used in polymerase chain reaction [PCR] amplification and slot blot hybridization experiments with genomic DNA from diverse eubacterial species. Oligonucleotides matching Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic [REP] elements and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus [ERIC] sequences were synthesized and tested as opposing PCR primers in the amplification of eubacterial genomic DNA. REP and ERIC consensus oligonucleotides produced clearly resolvable bands by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification. These band patterns provided unambiguous DNA fingerprints of different eubacterial species and strains. Both REP and ERIC probes hybridized preferentially to genomic DNA from Gram-negative enteric bacteria and related species. Widespread distribution of these repetitive DNA elements in the genomes of various microorganisms should enable rapid identification of bacterial species and strains, and be useful for the analysis of prokaryotic genomes.
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            Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response

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              Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health.

              Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis, eroding the discovery of antimicrobials and their application to clinical medicine. There is a general lack of knowledge of the importance of agricultural antimicrobial use as a factor in antimicrobial resistance even among experts in medicine and public health. This review focuses on agricultural antimicrobial drug use as a major driver of antimicrobial resistance worldwide for four reasons: It is the largest use of antimicrobials worldwide; much of the use of antimicrobials in agriculture results in subtherapeutic exposures of bacteria; drugs of every important clinical class are utilized in agriculture; and human populations are exposed to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens via consumption of animal products as well as through widespread release into the environment.

                Author and article information

                BMC Vet Res
                BMC Vet Res
                BMC Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                15 February 2021
                15 February 2021
                : 17
                [1 ]GRID grid.7080.f, Wildlife Conservation Medicine Research Group (WildCoM), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, , Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, ; Bellaterra, Spain
                [2 ]Research and Conservation Department, Zoo de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]GRID grid.7080.f, UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), ; Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ]GRID grid.8581.4, ISNI 0000 0001 1943 6646, IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), ; Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Veterinary medicine
                campylobacter,salmonella,antimicrobial resistance,free-ranging livestock,pyrenean chamois


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