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      Dietary fatty acid patterns and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background

          To characterize and examine the associations between dietary fatty acid intake patterns and the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

          Methods

          A total of 422 patients and 423 controls were recruited. Dietary fatty acids were entered into a factor analysis. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were used to evaluate the risk of ESCC specific for different dietary fatty acid patterns (FAPs). A forest plot was applied to show the association between FAPs and ESCC risk after stratification by lifestyle exposure factors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, pickled food, fried food, hot food, hard food).

          Results

          The factor analysis generated four major fatty acid patterns: a medium- and long-chain SFA (MLC-SFA) pattern; an even-chain unsaturated fatty acid (EC-UFA) pattern, a saturated fatty acid (SFA) pattern and an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) pattern. In the multivariate-adjusted model, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ESCC were 2.07 (1.31, 3.26) and 0.53 (0.34, 0.81) for the highest versus the lowest tertiles of the EC-UFA pattern and n-3 LC-PUFA pattern, respectively. The MLC-SFA and SFA patterns were not associated with ESCC. An association between FAPs and ESCC risk after stratification by lifestyle exposure factors was also observed.

          Conclusions

          Our study indicates that the EC-UFA pattern and n-3 LC-PUFA pattern intake are associated with ESCC, providing a potential dietary intervention for ESCC prevention.

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          Most cited references45

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Changing profiles of cancer burden worldwide and in China: a secondary analysis of the global cancer statistics 2020

            Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, but its burden is not uniform. GLOBOCAN 2020 has newly updated the estimates of cancer burden. This study summarizes the most recent changing profiles of cancer burden worldwide and in China and compares the cancer data of China with those of other regions. Methods: We conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of the GLOBOCAN 2020 data. To depict the changing global profile of the leading cancer types in 2020 compared with 2018, we extracted the numbers of cases and deaths in 2018 from GLOBOCAN 2018. We also obtained cancer incidence and mortality from the 2015 National Cancer Registry Report in China when sorting the leading cancer types by new cases and deaths. For the leading cancer types according to sex in China, we summarized the estimated numbers of incidence and mortality, and calculated China's percentage of the global new cases and deaths. Results: Breast cancer displaced lung cancer to become the most leading diagnosed cancer worldwide in 2020. Lung, liver, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were the top five leading causes of cancer-related death, among which liver cancer changed from the third-highest cancer mortality in 2018 to the second-highest in 2020. China accounted for 24% of newly diagnosed cases and 30% of the cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2020. Among the 185 countries included in the database, China's age-standardized incidence rate (204.8 per 100,000) ranked 65th and the age-standardized mortality rate (129.4 per 100,000) ranked 13th. The two rates were above the global average. Lung cancer remained the most common cancer type and the leading cause of cancer death in China. However, breast cancer became the most frequent cancer type among women if the incidence was stratified by sex. Incidences of colorectal cancer and breast cancer increased rapidly. The leading causes of cancer death varied minimally in ranking from 2015 to 2020 in China. Gastrointestinal cancers, including stomach, colorectal, liver, and esophageal cancers, contributed to a massive burden of cancer for both sexes. Conclusions: The burden of breast cancer is increasing globally. China is undergoing cancer transition with an increasing burden of lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and breast cancers. The mortality rate of cancer in China is high. Comprehensive strategies are urgently needed to target China's changing profiles of the cancer burden.
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              Inflammation and Cancer

              Inflammation is often associated with the development and progression of cancer. The cells responsible for cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance; therefore, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression. In contrast, cancer-intrinsic or cancer-elicited inflammation can be triggered by cancer-initiating mutations and can contribute to malignant progression through the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Both extrinsic and intrinsic inflammations can result in immunosuppression, thereby providing a preferred background for tumor development. The current review provides a link between inflammation and cancer development.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                peerj
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                2167-8359
                31 March 2022
                2022
                : 10
                : e13036
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University , Fuzhou, Fujian, China
                [2 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University , FuZhou, Fujian, China
                [3 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital , FuZhou, Fujian, China
                [4 ]Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Gastrointestinal Cancer, Fujian Medical University , FuZhou, Fujian, China
                Article
                13036
                10.7717/peerj.13036
                8977065
                35382006
                ebeabe5f-a043-49f4-8bca-b8eca2ac0e58
                ©2022 Hu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                History
                : 8 September 2021
                : 9 February 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: No. 2017YFC0907100
                Funded by: Medical Innovation project of Fujian Province
                Award ID: No. 2018-CX-38
                Funded by: Fujian Medical University
                Award ID: No. 2018QH2012
                This work was supported by the National Key R& D Program of China (No.2017YFC0907100), Medical Innovation project of Fujian Province (No.2018-CX-38) and the Startup Fund for scientific research, Fujian Medical University (No. 2018QH2012). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Epidemiology
                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Nutrition
                Oncology
                Public Health

                dietary fatty acid patterns,esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,factor analysis,n-3 lc-pufas,ec-ufas

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