Uremic patients suffer to an extremely high degree from cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease results mainly from atherosclerotic remodeling of the arterial system. Inflammation is considered to contribute significantly to development of atherosclerosis, and albeit many different factors may lead to inflammation, generation of enhanced oxidative stress is believed to be an important common feature of pro-inflammatory causes. Studies in the general population without renal disease could clearly show that markers of inflammation, in particular C-reactive protein, predict the cardiovascular risk. In this review article, we discuss the presence and the predictive value of inflammation in patients with end-stage renal disease, and analyze whether uremic patients are exposed to specific pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative conditions. Particular emphasis is set on oxidative stress induced by oxidatively modified lipoproteins and angiotensin II. Based on pathophysiological considerations valid for uremic patients, we discuss therapeutical options that might help to reduce cardiovascular disease in uremic patients.