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      From Point Defects in Graphene to Two-Dimensional Amorphous Carbon

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          Abstract

          While crystalline two-dimensional materials have become an experimental reality during the past few years, an amorphous 2-D material has not been reported before. Here, using electron irradiation we create an sp2-hybridized one-atom-thick flat carbon membrane with a random arrangement of polygons, including four-membered carbon rings. We show how the transformation occurs step-by-step by nucleation and growth of low-energy multi-vacancy structures constructed of rotated hexagons and other polygons. Our observations, along with first-principles calculations, provide new insights to the bonding behavior of carbon and dynamics of defects in graphene. The created domains possess a band gap, which may open new possibilities for engineering graphene-based electronic devices.

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          The electronic properties of graphene

          This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one atom thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. We show that the Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and integer quantum Hall effect. We discuss the electronic properties of graphene stacks and show that they vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene are strongly dependent on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. We also discuss how different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.
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            New Metallic Allotropes of Planar and Tubular Carbon

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              Author and article information

              Journal
              01 February 2011
              10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.105505
              1102.0174

              http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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              Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 105505 (2011)
              10 pages, 10 figures including supplementary information
              cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall

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