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      Longitudinal associations between body composition, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, disability, institutionalisation and mortality in community-dwelling older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project

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          Most cited references 15

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          Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity.

          As the prevalence of obesity increases in the United States, concern over the association of body weight with excess mortality has also increased. To estimate deaths associated with underweight (body mass index [BMI] or =30) in the United States in 2000. We estimated relative risks of mortality associated with different levels of BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) from the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1975) and NHANES II (1976-1980), with follow-up through 1992, and from NHANES III (1988-1994), with follow-up through 2000. These relative risks were applied to the distribution of BMI and other covariates from NHANES 1999-2002 to estimate attributable fractions and number of excess deaths, adjusted for confounding factors and for effect modification by age. Number of excess deaths in 2000 associated with given BMI levels. Relative to the normal weight category (BMI 18.5 to or =30) was associated with 111,909 excess deaths (95% confidence interval [CI], 53,754-170,064) and underweight with 33,746 excess deaths (95% CI, 15,726-51,766). Overweight was not associated with excess mortality (-86,094 deaths; 95% CI, -161,223 to -10,966). The relative risks of mortality associated with obesity were lower in NHANES II and NHANES III than in NHANES I. Underweight and obesity, particularly higher levels of obesity, were associated with increased mortality relative to the normal weight category. The impact of obesity on mortality may have decreased over time, perhaps because of improvements in public health and medical care. These findings are consistent with the increases in life expectancy in the United States and the declining mortality rates from ischemic heart disease.
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            Sarcopenic obesity: A Critical appraisal of the current evidence.

            Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is assuming a prominent role as a risk factor because of the double metabolic burden derived from low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and excess adiposity (obesity). The increase in obesity prevalence rates in older subjects is of concern given the associated disease risks and more limited therapeutic options available in this age group. This review has two main objectives. The primary objective is to collate results from studies investigating the effects of SO on physical and cardio-metabolic functions. The secondary objective is to evaluate published studies for consistency in methodology, diagnostic criteria, exposure and outcome selection. Large between-study heterogeneity was observed in the application of diagnostic criteria and choice of body composition components for the assessment of SO, which contributes to the inconsistent associations of SO with cardio-metabolic outcomes. We propose a metabolic load:capacity model of SO given by the ratio between fat mass and fat free mass, and discuss how this could be operationalised. The concept of regional fat distribution could be incorporated into the model and tested in future studies to advance our understanding of SO as a predictor of risk for cardio-metabolic diseases and physical disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
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              Quality of life in sarcopenia and frailty.

              The reduced muscle mass and impaired muscle performance that define sarcopenia in older individuals are associated with increased risk of physical limitation and a variety of chronic diseases. They may also contribute to clinical frailty. A gradual erosion of quality of life (QoL) has been evidenced in these individuals, although much of this research has been done using generic QoL instruments, particularly the SF-36, which may not be ideal in older populations with significant comorbidities. This review and report of an expert meeting presents the current definitions of these geriatric syndromes (sarcopenia and frailty). It then briefly summarizes QoL concepts and specificities in older populations and examines the relevant domains of QoL and what is known concerning QoL decline with these conditions. It calls for a clearer definition of the construct of disability, argues that a disease-specific QoL instrument for sarcopenia/frailty would be an asset for future research, and discusses whether there are available and validated components that could be used to this end and whether the psychometric properties of these instruments are sufficiently tested. It calls also for an approach using utility weighting to provide some cost estimates and suggests that a time trade-off study could be appropriate.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Age and Ageing
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0002-0729
                1468-2834
                May 2017
                May 01 2017
                December 08 2016
                May 2017
                May 01 2017
                December 08 2016
                : 46
                : 3
                : 413-420
                Article
                10.1093/ageing/afw214
                © 2016

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