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      Insulin deficiency and insulin resistance interaction in diabetes: Estimation of their relative contribution by feedback analysis from basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations

      , , , ,

      Metabolism

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The liver and beta cells function in a negative feedback loop, which appears to have a predominant role in regulating both the basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The degree of basal hyperglycemia in diabetes probably provides a bioassay of both the effect of a reduction in insulin secretory capacity and the degree of insulin resistance. A mathematic model of the interaction of insulin deficiency and insulin resistance has been constructed, based on the known response characteristics of the beta cells to glucose, and of plasma glucose and insulin control of hepatic and peripherpal glucose flux. The degree to which beta cell deficiency increases basal plasma glucose reflects the hyperbolic shape of the normal insulin secretory response to different glucose concentrations. The height of basal plasma insulin is a function of the degree of insulin resistance. From the basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, the model provides an estimate of the degree to which both beta cell deficiency and insulin resistance contribute to diabetes. The predictions arising from the model are in accord with experimental data in man and in animals. In normal-weight diabetics who do not have increased insulin resistance, the model predicts that more than 85% of beta cell function has to be lost for the basal plasma glucose to rise to 6 mmol/liter, but a further 5%--10% loss increases the basal plasma glucose to over 10 mmol/liter. In a third of a consecutive series of 65 newly presenting, uncomplicated diabetics, both normal weight and obese, the analysis from the model suggested that insulin resistance, rather than beta cell deficit, was the predominant feature.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Pathologic anatomy of the pancreas in juvenile diabetes mellitus.

           W Gepts (1965)
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            Insulin secretion in response to glycemic stimulus: relation of delayed initial release to carbohydrate intolerance in mild diabetes mellitus.

            Insulin secretory responses to paired intravenous and oral glucose loads were determined in 38 nonobese individuals classified as normal (nondiabetic) subjects, "mild" diabetics (fasting blood glucose below 105 mg per 100 ml), or "moderate" diabetics (fasting glucose below 192 mg per 100 ml). Studies were also performed in 29 obese persons who were similarly grouped. The intravenous load was given to assess the alacrity of hormonal release after glycemic stimulus, and the oral glucose to determine how the speed of initial insulinogenesis modifies the disposition of ingested carbohydrate. In the nonobese group, normal subjects responded to massive hyperglycemia after rapid injection of glucose with immediate and maximal outpouring of insulin, in contrast to a desultory insulinogenic response in patients with mild diabetes, and no initial response at all in moderate diabetics. During oral glucose tolerance tests, the much faster clearance of blood sugar in nondiabetic subjects was actually associated with lower absolute insulin output than was found in mildly diabetic patients, since the latter exhibited delayed hyperinsulinemia in concert with prolonged hyperglycemia. Moderate diabetics never showed excessive insulin release despite even greater hyperglycemia. An empirical "insulinogenic index," the ratio relating enhancement of circulating insulin to magnitude of corresponding glycemic stimulus, was used to compare the secretory capacities of respective groups. Despite the higher absolute hormonal output after oral glucose in mild diabetics, the index revealed that insulin release in normal subjects was proportionally more than twice as great. This relatively greater normal secretory response declared itself shortly after the administration of glucose by either route, and was maintained throughout both tests. In the 29 obese individuals, differences among groups were essentially the same as in persons of normal weight. Obese nondiabetics did show much larger absolute insulinogenic responses during both tests than did nonobese controls. Since corresponding glucose tolerance curves were also higher, the mean insulinogenic indexes for obese subjects were not statistically greater. Moreover, when comparable glucose curves of obese and nonobese controls
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              The syndromes of insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans. Insulin-receptor disorders in man.

              In six patients with acanthosis nigricans variable degrees of glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and marked resistance to exogenous insulin were found. Studies of insulin receptors on circulating monocytes suggest that the insulin resistance in these patients was due to a marked decrease in insulin binding to its membrane receptors. When these patients were fasted, there was a fall in plasma insulin but no increase in insulin binding, suggesting that the receptor defect was not secondary to the hyperinsulinemia. The clinical features shared by these cases and several similar ones previously reported may be divided into two unique clinical syndromes: Type A, a syndrome in younger females with signs of virilization or accelerated growth, in whom the receptor defect may be primary, and Type B, a syndrome in older females with signs of an immunologic disease, in whom circulating antibodies to the insulin receptor are found.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Metabolism
                Metabolism
                Elsevier BV
                00260495
                November 1979
                November 1979
                : 28
                : 11
                : 1086-1096
                Article
                10.1016/0026-0495(79)90146-X
                386029
                © 1979

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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