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      Insulin-like growth factor-1 deficiency and metabolic syndrome

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          Abstract

          Consistent evidence associates IGF-1 deficiency and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will focus on the metabolic effects of IGF-1, the concept of metabolic syndrome and its clinical manifestations (impaired lipid profile, insulin resistance, increased glucose levels, obesity, and cardiovascular disease), discussing whether IGF-1 replacement therapy could be a beneficial strategy for these patients. The search plan was made in Medline for Pubmed with the following mesh terms: IGF-1 and “metabolism, carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, amino acids, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes” between the years 1963–2015. The search includes animal and human protocols. In this review we discuss the relevant actions of IGF-1 on metabolism and the implication of IGF-1 deficiency in the establishment of metabolic syndrome. Multiple studies (in vitro and in vivo) demonstrate the association between IGF-1 deficit and deregulated lipid metabolism, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and an altered metabolic profile of diabetic patients. Based on the available data we propose IGF-1 as a key hormone in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome; due to its implications in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Previous data demonstrates how IGF-1 can be an effective option in the treatment of this worldwide increasing condition. It has to distinguished that the replacement therapy should be only undertaken to restore the physiological levels, never to exceed physiological ranges.

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          Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.

          To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization A total of 4,483 subjects aged 35-70 years participating in a large family study of type 2 diabetes in Finland and Sweden (the Botnia study) were included in the analysis of cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome. In subjects who had type 2 diabetes (n = 1,697), impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 798) or insulin-resistance with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1,988), the metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of at least two of the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or microalbuminuria. Cardiovascular mortality was assessed in 3,606 subjects with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. In women and men, respectively, the metabolic syndrome was seen in 10 and 15% of subjects with NGT, 42 and 64% of those with IFG/IGT, and 78 and 84% of those with type 2 diabetes. The risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was increased threefold in subjects with the syndrome (P < 0.001). Cardiovascular mortality was markedly increased in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (12.0 vs. 2.2%, P < 0.001). Of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria conferred the strongest risk of cardiovascular death (RR 2.80; P = 0.002). The WHO definition of the metabolic syndrome identifies subjects with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and offers a tool for comparison of results from diferent studies.
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            Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults.

            Mortality resulting from coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all causes in persons with diabetes and pre-existing CVD is high; however, these risks compared with those with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. We examined the impact of MetS on CHD, CVD, and overall mortality among US adults. In a prospective cohort study, 6255 subjects 30 to 75 years of age (54% female) (representative of 64 million adults in the United States) from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were followed for a mean+/-SD of 13.3+/-3.8 years. MetS was defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. From sample-weighted multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression, compared with those with neither MetS nor prior CVD, age-, gender-, and risk factor-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.42 to 2.89) for those with MetS and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.04 to 5.79) for those with pre-existing CVD. For CVD mortality, HRs were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.40 to 2.37) and 3.14 (95% CI, 2.49 to 3.96), respectively; for overall mortality, HRs were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.66) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.60 to 2.17), respectively. In persons with MetS but without diabetes, risks of CHD and CVD mortality remained elevated. Diabetes predicted all mortality end points. Those with even 1 to 2 MetS risk factors were at increased risk for mortality from CHD and CVD. Moreover, MetS more strongly predicts CHD, CVD, and total mortality than its individual components. CHD, CVD, and total mortality are significantly higher in US adults with than in those without MetS.
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              The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994.

              The metabolic syndrome is an important cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors with common insulin resistance. The extent to which the metabolic syndrome is associated with demographic and potentially modifiable lifestyle factors in the US population is unknown. Metabolic syndrome-associated factors and prevalence, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were evaluated in a representative US sample of 3305 black, 3477 Mexican American, and 5581 white men and nonpregnant or lactating women aged 20 years and older who participated in the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The metabolic syndrome was present in 22.8% and 22.6% of US men and women, respectively (P =.86). The age-specific prevalence was highest in Mexican Americans and lowest in blacks of both sexes. Ethnic differences persisted even after adjusting for age, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. The metabolic syndrome was present in 4.6%, 22.4%, and 59.6% of normal-weight, overweight, and obese men, respectively, and a similar distribution was observed in women. Older age, postmenopausal status, Mexican American ethnicity, higher body mass index, current smoking, low household income, high carbohydrate intake, no alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with increased odds of the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is present in more than 20% of the US adult population; varies substantially by ethnicity even after adjusting for body mass index, age, socioeconomic status, and other predictor variables; and is associated with several potentially modifiable lifestyle factors. Identification and clinical management of this high-risk group is an important aspect of coronary heart disease prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                g.amador@itesm.mx
                julyrdzd@gmail.com
                drarociogdelag@gmail.com
                +34 686 652 710 , iccortazar@itesm.mx , iccortazar@gmail.com
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                6 January 2016
                6 January 2016
                2016
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [ ]Escuela de Medicina, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Avenida Morones Prieto No. 3000 Pte. Col. Los Doctores, 64710 Monterrey, Nuevo León Mexico
                [ ]Fundación de Investigación HM Hospitales, Madrid, Spain
                Article
                762
                10.1186/s12967-015-0762-z
                4702316
                26733412
                ebf939ed-d48d-49c4-84b9-d57e8e5e6409
                © Aguirre et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Medicine
                lipid metabolism,insulin resistance,dyslipidemia,aging,oxidative stress,gh/igf-i axis,obesity,mitochondrial dysfunction,cellular protection

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