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      Treatment with epigenetic agents profoundly inhibits tumor growth in leiomyosarcoma

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          Abstract

          Leiomyosarcomas are rare mesenchymal neoplasms characterized by a smooth muscle differentiation pattern. Due to the extremely poor prognosis in patients, the development of novel chemotherapeutic regimens remains critically important. In this study, multiple leiomyosarcoma cell lines, SK-UT1, SK-LMS1, and MES-SA were treated with varying doses of the DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors (DNMTi) 5-azacitidine (Aza), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (DAC), and guadecitabine (SGI-110). The effect of these epigenetic modulators was measured using both in-vitro and in-vivo models.

          Of the three epigenetic modulators, Guadecitabine was the most effective at decreasing cell survival in LMS cell lines. SK-UT1 was found to be the more sensitive to all three epigenetic modulators, while SK-LMS1 and MES-SA were more resistant. The contrast in sensitivity seen was also represented by the increase in apoptosis in Aza and guadecitabine. In parallel with Aza, guadecitabine was observed to also arrest the cell cycle.

          Treatment with guadecitabine led to a decrease in growth across the spectrum of sensitivity in LMS cell lines, both in a delayed in vitro and in vivo model; in parallel experiments, apoptotic pathways were activated in sensitive and less sensitive lines. Additional studies are required to explore potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms for leiomyosarcoma treatment.

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          Most cited references39

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          DNA hypermethylation in tumorigenesis: epigenetics joins genetics.

          Recently, the concept that epigenetic, as well as genetic, events might be central to the evolution of human cancer is re-emerging. Cancers often exhibit an aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions that is associated with loss of gene function. This DNA change constitutes a heritable state, not mediated by altered nucleotide sequence, that appears to be tightly linked to the formation of transcriptionally repressive chromatin. This epigenetic process acts as an alternative to mutations to disrupt tumor-suppressor gene function and can predispose to genetic alterations through inactivating DNA-repair genes. Dissecting the molecular processes that mediate these methylation changes will enhance our understanding of chromatin modeling and gene regulation and might present novel possibilities for cancer therapy. Methylation changes constitute potentially sensitive molecular markers to define risk states, monitor prevention strategies, achieve early diagnosis, and track the prognosis of cancer.
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            Combination epigenetic therapy has efficacy in patients with refractory advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

            Epigenetic alterations are strongly associated with the development of cancer. We conducted a phase I/II trial of combined epigenetic therapy with azacitidine and entinostat, inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, respectively, in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. This therapy is well tolerated, and objective responses were observed, including a complete response and a partial response in a patient who remains alive and without disease progression approximately 2 years after completing protocol therapy. Median survival in the entire cohort was 6.4 months (95% CI 3.8-9.2), comparing favorably with existing therapeutic options. Demethylation of a set of 4 epigenetically silenced genes known to be associated with lung cancer was detectable in serial blood samples in these patients and was associated with improved progression-free (P = 0.034) and overall survival (P = 0.035). Four of 19 patients had major objective responses to subsequent anticancer therapies given immediately after epigenetic therapy. This study demonstrates that combined epigenetic therapy with low-dose azacitidine and entinostat results in objective, durable responses in patients with solid tumors and defines a blood-based biomarker that correlates with clinical benefit.
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              Descriptive epidemiology of sarcomas in Europe: report from the RARECARE project.

              Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cells which encompass dozens of histological types and can occur in virtually any anatomic site. They form one of the principal groups of rare cancers in Europe as defined in the RARECARE project. We analysed 45,568 incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 76 population-based cancer registries. Total crude incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 27,908 new cases per year in the EU27 countries, of which 84% were soft tissue sarcomas and 14% were bone sarcomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) were only widely recognised as an entity in the late 1990s and consequently were under-registered. Their true incidence is believed to be about 1.5 per 100,000. Age-standardised incidence of soft tissue sarcomas ranged from 3.3 per 100,000 in Eastern Europe to 4.7 per 100,000 in Northern Europe. About 280,000 persons were estimated to be alive at the beginning of 2003 with a past diagnosis of sarcoma, of which 83% were soft tissue sarcomas and 16% were bone sarcomas. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period was 58% for soft tissue sarcomas and 62% for bone sarcomas. The diversity and rarity of sarcomas combined with the quite large number of people affected by them mean that they provide a classic example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                10 April 2018
                10 April 2018
                : 9
                : 27
                : 19379-19395
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
                2 Institut für Allgemein, Viszeral und Transplantationschirurgie, Charite Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                3 Department of Surgical Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China
                4 Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
                5 Astex Pharmaceuticals Inc., Pleasanton, CA, United States
                6 Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Nita Ahuja, nita.ahuja@ 123456yale.edu
                Manjusha Thakar, mthakar3@ 123456jhmi.edu
                Article
                25056
                10.18632/oncotarget.25056
                5922404
                ebfc2a04-cccc-4c24-a31b-1e1a6c328ead
                Copyright: © 2018 De Carvalho Fischer et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                leiomyosarcoma, 5-azacitidine, guadecitabine

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