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      Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

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          Abstract

          Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly ( P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Inflammatory bowel disease.

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            Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase.

            When hemolyzates from erythrocytes of selenium-deficient rats were incubated in vitro in the presence of ascorbate or H(2)O(2), added glutathione failed to protect the hemoglobin from oxidative damage. This occurred because the erythrocytes were practically devoid of glutathione-peroxidase activity. Extensively purified preparations of glutathione peroxidase contained a large part of the (75)Se of erythrocytes labeled in vivo. Many of the nutritional effects of selenium can be explained by its role in glutathione peroxidase.
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              Molecular mechanisms activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway of antioxidant gene regulation.

              Several years have passed since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was demonstrated to regulate the induction of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Following a number of studies, it was realized that Nrf2 is a key factor for cytoprotection in various aspects, such as anticarcinogenicity, neuroprotection, antiinflammatory response, and so forth. These widespread functions of Nrf2 spring from the coordinated actions of various categories of target genes. The activation mechanism of Nrf2 has been studied extensively. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 localizes in the cytoplasm where it interacts with the actin binding protein, Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1), and is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Signals from reactive oxygen species or electrophilic insults target the Nrf2-Keap1 complex, dissociating Nrf2 from Keap1. Stabilized Nrf2 then translocates to the nuclei and transactivates its target genes. Interestingly, Keap1 is now assumed to be a substrate-specific adaptor of Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Direct participation of Keap1 in the ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2 is plausible. The Nrf2-Keap1 system is present not only in mammals, but in fish, suggesting that its roles in cellular defense are conserved throughout evolution among vertebrates. This review article recounts recent knowledge of the Nrf2-Keap1 system, focusing especially on the molecular mechanism of Nrf2 regulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                30 July 2015
                : 9
                : 3923-3934
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [3 ]Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohd Esa Norhaizan, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 8947 2427, Fax +60 3 8942 6769, Email nhaizan@ 123456upm.edu.my
                Article
                dddt-9-3923
                10.2147/DDDT.S86345
                4524530
                © 2015 Pandurangan et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                nrf2, enzymic antioxidants, mda, nqo1, il-21

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