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      A Trigger for Opioid Misuse: Chronic Pain and Stress Dysregulate the Mesolimbic Pathway and Kappa Opioid System

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          Abstract

          Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse. Despite opioids representing the best therapeutic strategy in pain conditions, they are often misused as a result of these allostatic changes induced by chronic pain and stress. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in these neuronal adaptations in part through its control of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, it is likely that changes in the kappa opioid system following chronic exposure to pain and stress play a key role in increasing the misuse liability observed in pain patients treated with opioids. In this review, we will discuss how chronic pain and stress-induced pathologies can affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, leading to increased abuse liability. We will also assess how the kappa opioid system may underlie these pathological changes.

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          Most cited references 100

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          Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis.

           M. Moal,  K Koob (2001)
          This paper reviews recent developments in the neurocircuitry and neurobiology of addiction from a perspective of allostasis. A model is proposed for brain changes that occur during the development of addiction that explain the persistent vulnerability to relapse long after drug-taking has ceased. Addiction is presented as a cycle of spiralling dysregulation of brain reward systems that progressively increases, resulting in the compulsive use and loss of control over drug-taking. The development of addiction recruits different sources of reinforcement, different neuroadaptive mechanisms, and different neurochemical changes to dysregulate the brain reward system. Counteradaptive processes such as opponent-process that are part of normal homeostatic limitation of reward function fail to return within the normal homeostatic range and are hypothesized to form an allostatic state. Allostasis from the addiction perspective is defined as the process of maintaining apparent reward function stability by changes in brain reward mechanisms. The allostatic state represents a chronic deviation of reward set point and is fueled not only by dysregulation of reward circuits per se, but also by the activation of brain and hormonal stress responses. The manifestation of this allostatic state as compulsive drug-taking and loss of control over drug-taking is hypothesized to be expressed through activation of brain circuits involved in compulsive behavior such as the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. The view that addiction is the pathology that results from an allostatic mechanism using the circuits established for natural rewards provides a realistic approach to identifying the neurobiological factors that produce vulnerability to addiction and relapse.
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            The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression.

            The neural circuitry that mediates mood under normal and abnormal conditions remains incompletely understood. Most attention in the field has focused on hippocampal and frontal cortical regions for their role in depression and antidepressant action. While these regions no doubt play important roles in these phenomena, there is compelling evidence that other brain regions are also involved. Here we focus on the potential role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc; ventral striatum) and its dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which form the mesolimbic dopamine system, in depression. The mesolimbic dopamine system is most often associated with the rewarding effects of food, sex, and drugs of abuse. Given the prominence of anhedonia, reduced motivation, and decreased energy level in most individuals with depression, we propose that the NAc and VTA contribute importantly to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of depression and may even be involved in its etiology. We review recent studies showing that manipulations of key proteins (e.g. CREB, dynorphin, BDNF, MCH, or Clock) within the VTA-NAc circuit of rodents produce unique behavioral phenotypes, some of which are directly relevant to depression. Studies of these and other proteins in the mesolimbic dopamine system have established novel approaches to modeling key symptoms of depression in animals, and could enable the development of antidepressant medications with fundamentally new mechanisms of action.
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              The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders.

              Mood disorders are common and debilitating conditions characterized in part by profound deficits in reward-related behavioural domains. A recent literature has identified important structural and functional alterations within the brain's reward circuitry--particularly in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens pathway--that are associated with symptoms such as anhedonia and aberrant reward-associated perception and memory. This Review synthesizes recent data from human and rodent studies from which emerges a circuit-level framework for understanding reward deficits in depression. We also discuss some of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this framework, ranging from adaptations in glutamatergic synapses and neurotrophic factors to transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-4548
                1662-453X
                07 November 2016
                2016
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Basic Research Division, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO, USA
                2Washington University Pain Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Catherine Cahill, University of California, Irvine, USA

                Reviewed by: Karim Nagi, Duke University Medical Center, USA; Michael Morgan, University of Queensland, Australia

                *Correspondence: Ream Al-Hasani al-hasanir@ 123456wustl.edu

                This article was submitted to Neuropharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Article
                10.3389/fnins.2016.00480
                5097922
                Copyright © 2016 Massaly, Morón and Al-Hasani.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 100, Pages: 7, Words: 6386
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse 10.13039/100000026
                Award ID: DA038725
                Award ID: DA036826
                Award ID: DA027460
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Mini Review

                Neurosciences

                psychological, stress, reward, chronic pain, dopamine, kappa opioid receptor

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