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      Integrative taxonomy of the rock-dwelling gecko Cnemaspis siamensis complex (Squamata, Gekkonidae) reveals a new species from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand

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          Abstract

          The rock-dwelling gecko genus Cnemaspis is one of the most species-diverse genera of gekkonid in Thailand. Earlier studies relied on morphological data to identify species, but cryptic morphology often obscured species diversity in Cnemaspis . In this study, an integrative taxonomic approach based on morphological characters and sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene were used to clarify current taxonomy of the Cnemaspis siamensis complex and delimit a new species from Lan Saka District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. Cnemaspis lineatubercularis sp. nov. is distinguished from other congeneric species by the combination of morphological characters: (1) maximum snout-vent length (SVL) of 40.6 mm (mean 38.8 ± SD 1.4, N = 12) in adult males and maximum SVL of 41.8 mm (mean 39.5 ± SD 1.9, N = 7) in adult females; (2) 8–9 supralabial and infralabial scales; (3) gular, pectoral, abdominal, and subcaudal scales keeled; (4) rostral, interorbitals, supercilium, palmar scales, and ventral scales of brachia smooth; (5) 5–6 small, subconical spine-like tubercles present on flanks; (6) 19–21 paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged; (7) 27–29 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; (8) 4–7 pore-bearing precloacal scales, pores rounded arranged in chevron shape and separated only in males; (9) one postcloacal tubercles each side in males; (10) ventrolateral caudal tubercles present anteriorly; (11) caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side; (12) single median row of subcaudal scales keeled and lacking enlarged median row; and (13) gular region, abdomen, limbs and subcaudal region yellowish only in males. Genetically, the uncorrected pairwise divergences between the new species and their congeners in the C. siamensis group were between 15.53–28.09%. The new species is currently known only from granitic rocky streams at Wang Mai Pak Waterfall in the Nakhon Si Thammarat mountain range. Its discovery suggests that additional unrecognized species of Cnemaspis may still occur in unexplored areas of southern Thailand.

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          Most cited references 39

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            Phylogenetic relationships of the dwarf boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic support.

             T Wilcox (2002)
            Four New World genera of dwarf boas (Exiliboa, Trachyboa, Tropidophis, and Ungaliophis) have been placed by many systematists in a single group (traditionally called Tropidophiidae). However, the monophyly of this group has been questioned in several studies. Moreover, the overall relationships among basal snake lineages, including the placement of the dwarf boas, are poorly understood. We obtained mtDNA sequence data for 12S, 16S, and intervening tRNA-val genes from 23 species of snakes representing most major snake lineages, including all four genera of New World dwarf boas. We then examined the phylogenetic position of these species by estimating the phylogeny of the basal snakes. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that New World dwarf boas are not monophyletic. Instead, we find Exiliboa and Ungaliophis to be most closely related to sand boas (Erycinae), boas (Boinae), and advanced snakes (Caenophidea), whereas Tropidophis and Trachyboa form an independent clade that separated relatively early in snake radiation. Our estimate of snake phylogeny differs significantly in other ways from some previous estimates of snake phylogeny. For instance, pythons do not cluster with boas and sand boas, but instead show a strong relationship with Loxocemus and Xenopeltis. Additionally, uropeltids cluster strongly with Cylindrophis, and together are embedded in what has previously been considered the macrostomatan radiation. These relationships are supported by both bootstrapping (parametric and nonparametric approaches) and Bayesian analysis, although Bayesian support values are consistently higher than those obtained from nonparametric bootstrapping. Simulations show that Bayesian support values represent much better estimates of phylogenetic accuracy than do nonparametric bootstrap support values, at least under the conditions of our study. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)
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              Removing allometric effects of body size in morphological analysis.

              In the present paper, a normalization technique to scale data that exhibit an allometric growth is presented and the way it has to be used is described. It is shown how the method has been derived from the theoretical equations of allometric growth. Consequently, the method completely removes all the information related to size, not only scaling all individuals to the same size, but also adjusting their shape to that they would have in the new size according to allometry. In the particular case of isometry when the measures are of identical dimension, this normalization coincides with ratios (one of the most popular methods but only valid in this particular case). This procedure is a theoretical generalization of the technique used by Thorpe (1975, Biol. J. Linn. Soc.7, 27-43; 1976, Biol. Rev.51, 407-452) which was recorded as one of the most efficient methods in the empirical evaluation done by Reist (1985, Can. J. Zool.63, 1429-1439). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                12 May 2020
                : 932
                : 129-159
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900 Thailand Kasetsart University Bangkok Thailand
                [2 ] Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, 10110 Thailand Srinakharinwirot University Bangkok Thailand
                [3 ] Department of Biological Sciences and Museum of Natural History, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA Auburn University Auburn United States of America
                [4 ] Section of Research and Collections, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC, USA North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences Raleigh United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Anchalee Aowphol ( fsciacl@ 123456ku.ac.th )

                Academic editor: A. Bauer

                Article
                50602
                10.3897/zookeys.932.50602
                7237529
                Natee Ampai, Perry L. Wood Jr, Bryan L. Stuart, Anchalee Aowphol

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Thailand Research Fund 501100004396 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100004396
                Categories
                Research Article
                Gekkonidae
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Asia
                Far East
                Thailand

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