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      The Sirtuin 3 Expression Profile Is Associated with Pathological and Clinical Outcomes in Colon Cancer Patients

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          Abstract

          Aim. To investigate the correlation between Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer. Methods. The tumor specimens from 127 patients with colon cancer were obtained for SIRT3 immunohistochemical staining. Patients were followed up. In in vitro study, SIRT3 gene was inhibited to observe the effects of SIRT3 on the biological behavior of cultured colon cells. Results. The SIRT3 expression level was found to be significantly associated with the lymph node metastasis ( P < 0.001) and tumor stages ( P < 0.001). The colon cancer-specific survival was 64.6% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions and 88.6% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.016). The overall survival was 80.2% among patients with low SIRT3 expressions and 55.9% among patients with high SIRT3 expressions (log-rank P = 0.002). In vitro study showed that silencing of SIRT3 gene inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and cells migration but increased the apoptosis in the cultured colon cell lines. Conclusion. This study provides evidence supporting that SIRT3 is closely associated with the clinical outcomes of colon cancer. SIRT3 may be considered as a marker for colon cancer.

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          Most cited references39

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          Tumor microsatellite-instability status as a predictor of benefit from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer.

          Colon cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability have clinical and pathological features that distinguish them from microsatellite-stable tumors. We investigated the usefulness of microsatellite-instability status as a predictor of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil in stage II and stage III colon cancer. Tumor specimens were collected from patients with colon cancer who were enrolled in randomized trials of fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Microsatellite instability was assessed with the use of mononucleotide and dinucleotide markers. Of 570 tissue specimens, 95 (16.7 percent) exhibited high-frequency microsatellite instability. Among 287 patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy, those with tumors displaying high-frequency microsatellite instability had a better five-year rate of overall survival than patients with tumors exhibiting microsatellite stability or low-frequency instability (hazard ratio for death, 0.31 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.72]; P=0.004). Among patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, high-frequency microsatellite instability was not correlated with increased overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 1.07 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.86]; P=0.80). The benefit of treatment differed significantly according to the microsatellite-instability status (P=0.01). Adjuvant chemotherapy improved overall survival among patients with microsatellite-stable tumors or tumors exhibiting low-frequency microsatellite instability, according to a multivariate analysis adjusted for stage and grade (hazard ratio for death, 0.72 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.99]; P=0.04). By contrast, there was no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the group with high-frequency microsatellite instability. Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy benefited patients with stage II or stage III colon cancer with microsatellite-stable tumors or tumors exhibiting low-frequency microsatellite instability but not those with tumors exhibiting high-frequency microsatellite instability. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            SIRT3 is a mitochondria-localized tumor suppressor required for maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and metabolism during stress.

            The sirtuin gene family (SIRT) is hypothesized to regulate the aging process and play a role in cellular repair. This work demonstrates that SIRT3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit abnormal mitochondrial physiology as well as increases in stress-induced superoxide levels and genomic instability. Expression of a single oncogene (Myc or Ras) in SIRT3(-/-) MEFs results in in vitro transformation and altered intracellular metabolism. Superoxide dismutase prevents transformation by a single oncogene in SIRT3(-/-) MEFs and reverses the tumor-permissive phenotype as well as stress-induced genomic instability. In addition, SIRT3(-/-) mice develop ER/PR-positive mammary tumors. Finally, human breast and other human cancer specimens exhibit reduced SIRT3 levels. These results identify SIRT3 as a genomically expressed, mitochondria-localized tumor suppressor. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              SIRT3 is a stress-responsive deacetylase in cardiomyocytes that protects cells from stress-mediated cell death by deacetylation of Ku70.

              There are seven SIRT isoforms in mammals, with diverse biological functions including gene regulation, metabolism, and apoptosis. Among them, SIRT3 is the only sirtuin whose increased expression has been shown to correlate with an extended life span in humans. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in murine cardiomyocytes. We found that SIRT3 is a stress-responsive deacetylase and that its increased expression protects myocytes from genotoxic and oxidative stress-mediated cell death. We show that, like human SIRT3, mouse SIRT3 is expressed in two forms, a approximately 44-kDa long form and a approximately 28-kDa short form. Whereas the long form is localized in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm, the short form is localized exclusively in the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes. During stress, SIRT3 levels are increased not only in mitochondria but also in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes. We also identified Ku70 as a new target of SIRT3. SIRT3 physically binds to Ku70 and deacetylates it, and this promotes interaction of Ku70 with the proapoptotic protein Bax. Thus, under stress conditions, increased expression of SIRT3 protects cardiomyocytes, in part by hindering the translocation of Bax to mitochondria. These studies underscore an essential role of SIRT3 in the survival of cardiomyocytes in stress situations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2014
                1 July 2014
                : 2014
                : 871263
                Affiliations
                1Department of General Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510282, China
                2Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong 256600, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ferdinando Chiaradonna

                Article
                10.1155/2014/871263
                4101237
                25105144
                ec2a0e60-bfab-41a1-8934-a68312b06245
                Copyright © 2014 Chunyuan Liu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 23 February 2014
                : 28 April 2014
                : 29 May 2014
                Categories
                Research Article

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