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      Hypoxia and Tubulointerstitial Injury: A Final Common Pathway to End-Stage Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Many clinical observations suggest common mediators in the progression of kidney disease leading to eventual kidney failure. Among them, accumulating evidence emphasizes the role of chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium in this role. When advanced, tubulointerstitial damage is associated with the loss of peritubular capillaries, impairing blood delivery. Associated interstitial fibrosis further impairs oxygen diffusion and supply to tubular and interstitial cells. This in turn exacerbates chronic hypoxia in this compartment, resulting in a vicious cycle. Both singly or together, glomerular injury and vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles due to an imbalance in vasoactive substances decrease post-glomerular peritubular capillary blood flow and contribute to chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium. Anemia in kidney disease also plays a significant role in hypoxia of the kidney. Moreover, increased metabolic demand in tubular cells, as observed in glomerular hyperfiltration for example, can cause relative hypoxia. Importantly, these factors can affect the kidney before the appearance of significant pathological changes in the vasculature and predispose it to tubulointerstitial injury. Therapeutic approaches targeting chronic hypoxia in the kidney should be effective against a broad range of renal diseases. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms of hypoxia-induced transcription, giving hope for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against this final common pathway.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease.

          Hyperuricemia is associated with renal disease, but it is usually considered a marker of renal dysfunction rather than a risk factor for progression. Recent studies have reported that mild hyperuricemia in normal rats induced by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA), results in hypertension, intrarenal vascular disease, and renal injury. This led to the hypothesis that uric acid may contribute to progressive renal disease. To examine the effect of hyperuricemia on renal disease progression, rats were fed 2% OA for 6 wk after 5/6 remnant kidney (RK) surgery with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or the uricosuric agent, benziodarone. Renal function and histologic studies were performed at 6 wk. Given observations that uric acid induces vascular disease, the effect of uric acid on vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was also examined. RK rats developed transient hyperuricemia (2.7 mg/dl at week 2), but then levels returned to baseline by week 6 (1.4 mg/dl). In contrast, RK+OA rats developed higher and more persistent hyperuricemia (6 wk, 3.2 mg/dl). Hyperuricemic rats demonstrated higher BP, greater proteinuria, and higher serum creatinine than RK rats. Hyperuricemic RK rats had more renal hypertrophy and greater glomerulosclerosis (24.2 +/- 2.5 versus 17.5 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and interstitial fibrosis (1.89 +/- 0.45 versus 1.52 +/- 0.47; P < 0.05). Hyperuricemic rats developed vascular disease consisting of thickening of the preglomerular arteries with smooth muscle cell proliferation; these changes were significantly more severe than a historical RK group with similar BP. Allopurinol significantly reduced uric acid levels and blocked the renal functional and histologic changes. Benziodarone reduced uric acid levels less effectively and only partially improved BP and renal function, with minimal effect on the vascular changes. To better understand the mechanism for the vascular disease, the expression of COX-2 and renin were examined. Hyperuricemic rats showed increased renal renin and COX-2 expression, the latter especially in preglomerular arterial vessels. In in vitro studies, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells incubated with uric acid also generated COX-2 with time-dependent proliferation, which was prevented by either a COX-2 or TXA-2 receptor inhibitor. Hyperuricemia accelerates renal progression in the RK model via a mechanism linked to high systemic BP and COX-2-mediated, thromboxane-induced vascular disease. These studies provide direct evidence that uric acid may be a true mediator of renal disease and progression.
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            Hypoxia of the renal medulla--its implications for disease.

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              Hypoxia promotes fibrogenesis in human renal fibroblasts.

              The mechanisms underlying progressive renal fibrosis are unknown, but the common association of fibrosis and microvascular loss suggests that hypoxia per se may be a fibrogenic stimulus. To determine whether human renal fibroblasts (HRFs), the primary matrix-producing cells in the tubulointerstitium, possess oxygen-sensitive responses relevant to fibrogenesis, cells were exposed to 1% O2 in vitro. Hypoxia simultaneously stimulated extracellular matrix synthesis and suppressed turnover with increased production of collagen alpha1(I) (Coll-I), decreased expression of collagenase, and increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. These effects are time dependent, require new RNA and protein synthesis, and are specific to hypoxia. The changes in Coll-I and TIMP-1 gene expression involve a heme-protein O2 sensor and protein kinase- and tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling. Although hypoxia induced transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), neutralizing anti-TGF-beta1-antibody did not block hypoxia-induced Coll-I and TIMP-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, hypoxic-cell conditioned-medium had no effect on the expression of these mRNAs in naive fibroblasts, suggesting direct effects on gene transcription. Transient transfections identified a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the TIMP-1 promoter and demonstrated HIF-1-dependent promoter activation by decreased ambient pO2. These data suggest that hypoxia co-ordinately up-regulates matrix production and decreases turnover in renal fibroblasts. The results support a role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of fibrosis and provide evidence for novel, direct hypoxic effects on the expression of genes involved in fibrogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2004
                September 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 98
                : 1
                : e8-e12
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology and Endocrinology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                79927 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;98:e8–e12
                10.1159/000079927
                15361693
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/79927
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