The study combines available data on species distribution in eastern Indochina to investigate the phylogeographical genetic and morphological diversity of tree rats (Chiromyscus, Rodentia, Muridae) and to specify their natural ranges. We examined the diversity and distribution of tree rats over its range, based on recent molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, RAG1 and GHR) genes. The study presents the most complete and up-to-date data on the distribution and phylogeography of the genus in eastern Indochina. As revealed by mitochondrial genes, C. langbianis splits into at least four coherent geographically-distributed clades, whereas C. thomasi and C. chiropus form two distinctive mitochondrial clades each. Chiromyscus langbianis and C. chiropus show significant inconsistency in nuclear genes, whereas C. thomasi shows the same segregation pattern as can be traced by mitochondrial markers. The Northern and Southern phylogroups of C. thomasi appear to be distributed sympatrically with northern phylogroups of C. langbianis in most parts of eastern Indochina. The mitochondrial clades discovered are geographically subdivided and divergent enough to suspect independent subspecies within C. langbianis and C. thomasi. However, due to the insufficiency of obvious morphological traits, a formal description is not carried out here. The processes of recent fauna formation, species distribution patterns, dispersion routes and possible natural history in Indochina are discussed.