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      Distribution pattern and phylogeography of tree rats Chiromyscus (Rodentia, Muridae) in eastern Indochina

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The study combines available data on species distribution in eastern Indochina to investigate the phylogeographical genetic and morphological diversity of tree rats (Chiromyscus, Rodentia, Muridae) and to specify their natural ranges. We examined the diversity and distribution of tree rats over its range, based on recent molecular data for mitochondrial (Cyt b, COI) and nuclear (IRBP, RAG1 and GHR) genes. The study presents the most complete and up-to-date data on the distribution and phylogeography of the genus in eastern Indochina. As revealed by mitochondrial genes, C. langbianis splits into at least four coherent geographically-distributed clades, whereas C. thomasi and C. chiropus form two distinctive mitochondrial clades each. Chiromyscus langbianis and C. chiropus show significant inconsistency in nuclear genes, whereas C. thomasi shows the same segregation pattern as can be traced by mitochondrial markers. The Northern and Southern phylogroups of C. thomasi appear to be distributed sympatrically with northern phylogroups of C. langbianis in most parts of eastern Indochina. The mitochondrial clades discovered are geographically subdivided and divergent enough to suspect independent subspecies within C. langbianis and C. thomasi. However, due to the insufficiency of obvious morphological traits, a formal description is not carried out here. The processes of recent fauna formation, species distribution patterns, dispersion routes and possible natural history in Indochina are discussed.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              Precision Farming: Technologies and Information as Risk-Reduction Tools

               Franklin Hall (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                February 03 2021
                February 03 2021
                : 97
                : 1
                : 83-95
                Article
                10.3897/zse.97.57490
                © 2021

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