Immobilization of enzymes on the transducer surface is a necessary and critical step in the design of biosensors. An overview of the different immobilization techniques reported in the literature is given, dealing with classical adsorption, covalent bonds, entrapment, cross-linking or affinity as well as combination of them and focusing on new original methods as well as the recent introduction of promising nanomaterials such as conducting polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes or nanoparticles. As indicated in this review, various immobilization methods have been used to develop optical, electrochemical or gravimetric enzymatic biosensors. The choice of the immobilization method is shown to represent an important parameter that affects biosensor performances, mainly in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and stability, by influencing enzyme orientation, loading, mobility, stability, structure and biological activity. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.