20 February 2018
Global Positioning System, pedestrians, vehicular ad hoc networks, Kalman filters, vehicular communication signals, performance improvement, pedestrian-to-vehicle communications, urban canyon, satellite signals, roadside buildings, pedestrian positioning method, channel state information, pedestrian-vehicle distance, line-of-sight path, distance error, diverse measurements, Kalman filter, trace-based simulation, transmission frequency
Pedestrian-to-vehicle communications, where pedestrian devices transmit their position information to nearby vehicles to indicate their presence, help to reduce pedestrian accidents. Satellite-based systems are widely used for pedestrian positioning, but have much degraded performance in urban canyon, where satellite signals are often obstructed by roadside buildings. The authors propose a pedestrian positioning method, which leverages vehicular communication signals and uses vehicles as anchors. The performance of pedestrian positioning is improved from three aspects: (i) channel state information instead of received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is used to estimate pedestrian-vehicle distance with higher precision. (ii) Only signals with line-of-sight path are used, and the property of distance error is considered. (iii) Fast mobility of vehicles is used to get diverse measurements, and Kalman filter is applied to smooth positioning results. Extensive evaluations, via trace-based simulation, confirm that (i) fixing rate of positions can be much improved. (ii) Horizontal positioning error can be greatly reduced, nearly by one order compared with off-the-shelf receivers, by almost half compared with RSSI-based method, and can be reduced further to about 80 cm when vehicle transmission period is 100 ms and Kalman filter is applied. Generally, positioning performance increases with the number of available vehicles and their transmission frequency.