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      Chemistry, Processing, Properties, and Applications of Rubber Foams

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          Abstract

          With the ever-increasing development in science and technology, as well as social awareness, more requirements are imposed on the production and property of all materials, especially polymeric foams. In particular, rubber foams, compared to thermoplastic foams in general, have higher flexibility, resistance to abrasion, energy absorption capabilities, strength-to-weight ratio and tensile strength leading to their widespread use in several applications such as thermal insulation, energy absorption, pressure sensors, absorbents, etc. To control the rubber foams microstructure leading to excellent physical and mechanical properties, two types of parameters play important roles. The first category is related to formulation including the rubber (type and grade), as well as the type and content of accelerators, fillers, and foaming agents. The second category is associated to processing parameters such as the processing method (injection, extrusion, compression, etc.), as well as different conditions related to foaming (temperature, pressure and number of stage) and curing (temperature, time and precuring time). This review presents the different parameters involved and discusses their effect on the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of rubber foams. Although several studies have been published on rubber foams, very few papers reviewed the subject and compared the results available. In this review, the most recent works on rubber foams have been collected to provide a general overview on different types of rubber foams from their preparation to their final application. Detailed information on formulation, curing and foaming chemistry, production methods, morphology, properties, and applications is presented and discussed.

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          Bioinspired structural materials.

          Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.
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            A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design.

            A fractured microstructure design: A new type of piezoresistive sensor with ultra-high-pressure sensitivity (0.26 kPa(-1) ) in low pressure range (<2 kPa) and minimum detectable pressure of 9 Pa has been fabricated using a fractured microstructure design in a graphene-nanosheet-wrapped polyurethane (PU) sponge. This low-cost and easily scalable graphene-wrapped PU sponge pressure sensor has potential application in high-spatial-resolution, artificial skin without complex nanostructure design.
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              Statistical Mechanics of Cross‐Linked Polymer Networks I. Rubberlike Elasticity

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                13 May 2021
                May 2021
                : 13
                : 10
                : 1565
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; ehsan.rostamitapehesmaeil.1@ 123456ulaval.ca
                [2 ]Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Bonab, Bonab 5551761167, Iran; elnaz.esmizadeh@ 123456uwaterloo.ca
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ali.vahidifar@ 123456airboss.com (A.V.); denis.rodrigue@ 123456gch.ulaval.ca (D.R.); Tel.: +1-418-656-2903 (A.V.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0611-4717
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3969-2847
                Article
                polymers-13-01565
                10.3390/polym13101565
                8153173
                ec596407-8b1a-457c-8f0f-f44ce746fb4e
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 25 April 2021
                : 08 May 2021
                Categories
                Review

                rubber,foam,morphology,curing,characterization,applications
                rubber, foam, morphology, curing, characterization, applications

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