Dermoid and epidermoid cysts are slow-growing, benign developmental cysts that arise from ectodermal tissue and can occur anywhere in the body. Less than 7% of these cysts involve the head and neck region, with only 1.6% of cases presenting in the oral cavity. To evaluate the clinical and histopathological features of dermoid (DCs) and epidermoid (ECs) cysts stored in the archives of a referred Oral Pathology Service over a 48-year-period, and to review current concepts about these cysts.
All DCs and ECs were reviewed, and clinical data were obtained from the patient records. Fourteen cases of DCs and thirteen cases of ECs were re-evaluated microscopically by 2 oral pathologists.
Among 15.387 cases, 14 (0.09%) had a histopathological diagnosis of DCs and 13 (0.08%) of ECs. For DCs, ten (71.4%) patients were women, with the mean age of 37.2 years. All DCs were lined by a stratified squamous epithelium (100%), with gut and respiratory epithelium observed in 1 (7.1%) and 2 (14.3%) cases, respectively. Chronic inflammatory cells, melanin, multinucleated giant cell reaction, and Pacini bodies were also observed. For ECs, eight (61.5%) cases were in women, and the mean age was 38.2 years. All ECs were lined by a stratified squamous epithelium (100%). Chronic inflammatory cells, melanin pigmentation, and adipose tissue were observed in the fibrous capsule.