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      Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System


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          Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects’ mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt “fresher”. The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8–10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11–12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13–30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil.

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          Most cited references40

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          Vigilance, alertness, or sustained attention: physiological basis and measurement.

          Vigilance is a term with varied definitions but the most common usage is sustained attention or tonic alertness. This usage of vigilance implies both the degree of arousal on the sleep-wake axis and the level of cognitive performance. There are many interacting neural and neurotransmitter systems that affect vigilance. Most studies of vigilance have relied on states where the sleep-wake state is altered, e.g. drowsiness, sleep-deprivation, and CNS-active drugs, but there are factors ranging from psychophysics to motivation that may impact vigilance. While EEG is the most commonly studied physiologic measure of vigilance, various measures of eye movement and of autonomic nervous system activity have also been used. This review paper discusses the underlying neural basis of vigilance and its assessment using physiologic tools. Since, assessment of vigilance requires assessment of cognitive function this aspect is also discussed.
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            Fundamentals of EEG measurement

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              Dose-related effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function.

              Little is known about the influence of cigarette smoking on the ability to smell; previous studies on this topic have led to contradictory findings and have failed to take into account smoking dose and duration. In the present study, the 40-odorant University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was administered to 638 subjects for whom detailed smoking histories were available. Smoking was found to be adversely associated with odor identification ability in a dose-related manner in both current and previous cigarette smokers. Among previous smokers, improvement in olfactory function was related to the time elapsed since the cessation of smoking. Logistic regression analysis found current smokers to be nearly twice as likely to evidence an olfactory deficit than persons who have never smoked. Overall, the data suggest that (1) smoking causes long-term but reversible adverse effects on the ability to smell and (2) the failure of some studies to demonstrate smoking effects may be caused by the inclusion of persons with a history of smoking in the nonsmoking groups.

                Author and article information

                Sci Pharm
                Sci Pharm
                Scientia Pharmaceutica
                Scientia Pharmaceutica
                Österreichische Apotheker-Verlagsgesellschaft
                June 2013
                June 2013
                23 December 2012
                : 81
                : 2
                : 531-542
                [1 ]College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
                [2 ]Salaya Stem Cell Research and Development Project; Research Center for Neuroscience, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand.
                [3 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakhon-nayok 26120, Thailand.
                [4 ]Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: drvorasith@ 123456gmail.com (V. Siripornpanich)
                © 2013 Sayorwan et al.; licensee Österreichische Apotheker-Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., Vienna, Austria.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                rosmarinus officinalis l.,electroencephalography,alpha power,autonomic nervous system,mood state


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