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      Fasting selectively blocks development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via leptin-receptor upregulation

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          Abstract

          In leukemic mice, fasting reduces the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not acute myeloid leukemia, via upregulation of leptin receptor expression and signaling in the leukemic cells.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

          Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia occurs in both children and adults but its incidence peaks between 2 and 5 years of age. Causation is multifactorial and exogenous or endogenous exposures, genetic susceptibility, and chance have roles. Survival in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has improved to roughly 90% in trials with risk stratification by biological features of leukaemic cells and response to treatment, treatment modification based on patients' pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics, and improved supportive care. However, innovative approaches are needed to further improve survival while reducing adverse effects. Prognosis remains poor in infants and adults. Genome-wide profiling of germline and leukaemic cell DNA has identified novel submicroscopic structural genetic changes and sequence mutations that contribute to leukaemogenesis, define new disease subtypes, affect responsiveness to treatment, and might provide novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalised medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The distinct metabolic profile of hematopoietic stem cells reflects their location in a hypoxic niche.

            Bone marrow transplantation is the primary therapy for numerous hematopoietic disorders. The efficiency of bone marrow transplantation depends on the function of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), which is markedly influenced by their hypoxic niche. Survival in this low-oxygen microenvironment requires significant metabolic adaptation. Here, we show that LT-HSCs utilize glycolysis instead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to meet their energy demands. We used flow cytometry to identify a unique low mitochondrial activity/glycolysis-dependent subpopulation that houses the majority of hematopoietic progenitors and LT-HSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that Meis1 and Hif-1alpha are markedly enriched in LT-HSCs and that Meis1 regulates HSC metabolism through transcriptional activation of Hif-1alpha. These findings reveal an important transcriptional network that regulates HSC metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Calorie restriction, SIRT1 and metabolism: understanding longevity.

              Calorie restriction (CR) is the only experimental manipulation that is known to extend the lifespan of a number of organisms including yeast, worms, flies, rodents and perhaps non-human primates. In addition, CR has been shown to reduce the incidence of age-related disorders (for example, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disorders) in mammals. The mechanisms through which this occurs have been unclear. CR induces metabolic changes, improves insulin sensitivity and alters neuroendocrine function in animals. In this review, we summarize recent findings that are beginning to clarify the mechanisms by which CR results in longevity and robust health, which might open new avenues of therapy for diseases of ageing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Medicine
                Nat Med
                Springer Nature
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                December 12 2016
                December 12 2016
                : 23
                : 1
                : 79-90
                Article
                10.1038/nm.4252
                6956990
                27941793
                © 2016
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