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      Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Modify the Association between FTO Genetic Variations and Obesity Phenotypes

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          There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet) with FTO polymorphisms in relation to obesity phenotypes. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants. Each case was individually matched with a normal weight control ( n = 1254). Selected polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939973, and rs3751812) were genotyped. Genetic risk score (GRS) were calculated using the weighted method. The Mediterranean dietary score (MDS) was computed. Individuals with minor allele carriers of rs9939973, rs8050136, rs1781749, and rs3751812 had lower risk of obesity when they had higher MDS, compared to wild-type homozygote genotype carriers. The obesity risk was decreased across quartiles of MDS in participants with high GRS (OR: 1, 0.8, 0.79, 0.67) compared to individuals with low GRS (OR: 1.33, 1.06, 0.97, 1.12) (Pinteraction < 0.05). No significant interaction between the GRS and MDS on abdominal obesity was found. A higher Med Diet adherence was associated with lower obesity risk in subjects with more genetic predisposition to obesity, compared to those with lower adherence to the Med Diet and lower GRS.

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          In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            A WHO expert consultation addressed the debate about interpretation of recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for determining overweight and obesity in Asian populations, and considered whether population-specific cut-off points for BMI are necessary. They reviewed scientific evidence that suggests that Asian populations have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than do European populations. The consultation concluded that the proportion of Asian people with a high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is substantial at BMIs lower than the existing WHO cut-off point for overweight (> or =25 kg/m2). However, available data do not necessarily indicate a clear BMI cut-off point for all Asians for overweight or obesity. The cut-off point for observed risk varies from 22 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in different Asian populations; for high risk it varies from 26 kg/m2 to 31 kg/m2. No attempt was made, therefore, to redefine cut-off points for each population separately. The consultation also agreed that the WHO BMI cut-off points should be retained as international classifications. The consultation identified further potential public health action points (23.0, 27.5, 32.5, and 37.5 kg/m2) along the continuum of BMI, and proposed methods by which countries could make decisions about the definitions of increased risk for their population.
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              Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may improve longevity, but relevant data are limited. We conducted a population-based, prospective investigation involving 22,043 adults in Greece who completed an extensive, validated, food-frequency questionnaire at base line. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet was assessed by a 10-point Mediterranean-diet scale that incorporated the salient characteristics of this diet (range of scores, 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater adherence). We used proportional-hazards regression to assess the relation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and total mortality, as well as mortality due to coronary heart disease and mortality due to cancer, with adjustment for age, sex, body-mass index, physical-activity level, and other potential confounders. During a median of 44 months of follow-up, there were 275 deaths. A higher degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduction in total mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for death associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean-diet score, 0.75 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.87]). An inverse association with greater adherence to this diet was evident for both death due to coronary heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.67 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.94]) and death due to cancer (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.98]). Associations between individual food groups contributing to the Mediterranean-diet score and total mortality were generally not significant. Greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction in total mortality. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Nutrition and Endocrine Research Centre, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1985717413 Tehran, Iran; f.hosseini@
                [2 ]Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, 9415969788 Maragheh, Iran; koochakpoorglareh@
                [3 ]Cellular Molecular and Endocrine Research Centre, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1985717413 Tehran, Iran; daneshpour1388@ (M.S.D.); b.s.khayat@ (B.S.-k.)
                [4 ]Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Endocrine Research Centre, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1985717413 Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mirmiran@ or parvin.mirmiran@ (P.M.); azizi@ (F.A.); Tel.: +98-21-2243-2503 (P.M. & F.A.); Fax: +98-21-2240-2463 (P.M. & F.A.)
                26 September 2017
                October 2017
                : 9
                : 10
                28954439 5691681 10.3390/nu9101064 nutrients-09-01064
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


                Nutrition & Dietetics

                mediterranean, dietary pattern, fto polymorphisms, interaction, obesity


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