Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of
indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered
invasive delivery methods, because non-invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye
drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting.
There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive
delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and
improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.
This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes
of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to
develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye.
The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery
methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance.