There is a paucity of reports examining the relationship between the integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) and different aspects of cognitive functioning in patients with first-episode (FES) and chronic schizophrenia (CS) simultaneously; furthermore, what results exist are inconclusive. We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate differences in integrity in five regions of the CC between FES, CS, and healthy controls (HC). Additionally, we analyzed correlations between these regions’ integrity and working memory, planning, and speed of processing. Eighteen patients with FES, 55 patients with CS, and 30 HC took part in the study. We assessed cognitive functions with four tasks from Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia. Patients with CS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in Region 5 (statistical trend) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in Regions 4 and 5 than HC, and patients with FES had higher MD in Region 3 (statistical trend) than HC. Both clinical groups performed worse on working memory and speed of processing tasks than HC, and patients with CS scored worse than HC on independent planning, and worse than FES and HC on dependent planning. Moreover, in patients with CS, MD in Region 3 was correlated with verbal working memory. Our results suggest that patients with FES and CS are characterized by impaired integrity of the middle and posterior CC, respectively. We confirmed that both clinical groups have cognitive impairments. Moreover, the integrity of the middle CC may influence planning in patients with CS.