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      Relationship of Corpus Callosum Integrity with Working Memory, Planning, and Speed of Processing in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia


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          There is a paucity of reports examining the relationship between the integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) and different aspects of cognitive functioning in patients with first-episode (FES) and chronic schizophrenia (CS) simultaneously; furthermore, what results exist are inconclusive. We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate differences in integrity in five regions of the CC between FES, CS, and healthy controls (HC). Additionally, we analyzed correlations between these regions’ integrity and working memory, planning, and speed of processing. Eighteen patients with FES, 55 patients with CS, and 30 HC took part in the study. We assessed cognitive functions with four tasks from Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia. Patients with CS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in Region 5 (statistical trend) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in Regions 4 and 5 than HC, and patients with FES had higher MD in Region 3 (statistical trend) than HC. Both clinical groups performed worse on working memory and speed of processing tasks than HC, and patients with CS scored worse than HC on independent planning, and worse than FES and HC on dependent planning. Moreover, in patients with CS, MD in Region 3 was correlated with verbal working memory. Our results suggest that patients with FES and CS are characterized by impaired integrity of the middle and posterior CC, respectively. We confirmed that both clinical groups have cognitive impairments. Moreover, the integrity of the middle CC may influence planning in patients with CS.

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              I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models within this framework. I follow this with a brief discussion of alternative models and their relationship to the framework. I conclude with speculations on further developments and a comment on the value of attempting to apply models and theories beyond the laboratory studies on which they are typically based.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                17 July 2021
                July 2021
                : 10
                : 14
                [1 ]Institute of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, 61-719 Poznań, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-457 Szczecin, Poland; piotr.podwalski@ 123456gmail.com (P.P.); zurawska1989@ 123456gmail.com (K.W.); krudkowski@ 123456gmail.com (K.R.); michalszelepajlo@ 123456wp.pl (M.S.); jola_kucharska@ 123456tlen.pl (J.K.-M.); annakarolina6@ 123456wp.pl (A.M.); samoj@ 123456pum.edu.pl (J.S.)
                [3 ]Department of Health Psychology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-457 Szczecin, Poland; katarzynarek90@ 123456gmail.com (K.R.-O.); monika.mak@ 123456gmail.com (M.M.); piotrpp119@ 123456gmail.com (P.P.); maksbiel@ 123456gmail.com (M.B.); krzysztofwietrzynski@ 123456gmail.com (K.W.)
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-252 Szczecin, Poland; wojciech.andrusewicz@ 123456gmail.com (W.A.); leszekm.sagan@ 123456gmail.com (L.S.)
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry, Division of Consultation Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland; mblazej@ 123456interia.eu
                [6 ]Institute of Psychology, University of Szczecin, 71-017 Szczecin, Poland; magdalena@ 123456kerestey.net (M.K.); adrianaweronika@ 123456gmail.com (A.B.)
                [7 ]Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University in Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland; magdalena.wiedlocha@ 123456wum.edu.pl (M.W.); piotr.marcinowicz@ 123456gmail.com (P.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: etyburski@ 123456swps.edu.pl ; Tel.: +48-61-271-12-22
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                corpus callosum,working memory,planning,speed of processing,first-episode schizophrenia,chronic schizophrenia,diffusion tensor imaging,dti,fractional anisotropy,mean diffusivity


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