1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Relationship of Corpus Callosum Integrity with Working Memory, Planning, and Speed of Processing in Patients with First-Episode and Chronic Schizophrenia

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          There is a paucity of reports examining the relationship between the integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) and different aspects of cognitive functioning in patients with first-episode (FES) and chronic schizophrenia (CS) simultaneously; furthermore, what results exist are inconclusive. We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate differences in integrity in five regions of the CC between FES, CS, and healthy controls (HC). Additionally, we analyzed correlations between these regions’ integrity and working memory, planning, and speed of processing. Eighteen patients with FES, 55 patients with CS, and 30 HC took part in the study. We assessed cognitive functions with four tasks from Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia. Patients with CS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in Region 5 (statistical trend) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in Regions 4 and 5 than HC, and patients with FES had higher MD in Region 3 (statistical trend) than HC. Both clinical groups performed worse on working memory and speed of processing tasks than HC, and patients with CS scored worse than HC on independent planning, and worse than FES and HC on dependent planning. Moreover, in patients with CS, MD in Region 3 was correlated with verbal working memory. Our results suggest that patients with FES and CS are characterized by impaired integrity of the middle and posterior CC, respectively. We confirmed that both clinical groups have cognitive impairments. Moreover, the integrity of the middle CC may influence planning in patients with CS.

          Related collections

          Most cited references98

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A power primer.

          One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia

            The variable results of positive-negative research with schizophrenics underscore the importance of well-characterized, standardized measurement techniques. We report on the development and initial standardization of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for typological and dimensional assessment. Based on two established psychiatric rating systems, the 30-item PANSS was conceived as an operationalized, drug-sensitive instrument that provides balanced representation of positive and negative symptoms and gauges their relationship to one another and to global psychopathology. It thus constitutes four scales measuring positive and negative syndromes, their differential, and general severity of illness. Study of 101 schizophrenics found the four scales to be normally distributed and supported their reliability and stability. Positive and negative scores were inversely correlated once their common association with general psychopathology was extracted, suggesting that they represent mutually exclusive constructs. Review of five studies involving the PANSS provided evidence of its criterion-related validity with antecedent, genealogical, and concurrent measures, its predictive validity, its drug sensitivity, and its utility for both typological and dimensional assessment.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found

              Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies

              I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models within this framework. I follow this with a brief discussion of alternative models and their relationship to the framework. I conclude with speculations on further developments and a comment on the value of attempting to apply models and theories beyond the laboratory studies on which they are typically based.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                17 July 2021
                July 2021
                : 10
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, 61-719 Poznań, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-457 Szczecin, Poland; piotr.podwalski@ 123456gmail.com (P.P.); zurawska1989@ 123456gmail.com (K.W.); krudkowski@ 123456gmail.com (K.R.); michalszelepajlo@ 123456wp.pl (M.S.); jola_kucharska@ 123456tlen.pl (J.K.-M.); annakarolina6@ 123456wp.pl (A.M.); samoj@ 123456pum.edu.pl (J.S.)
                [3 ]Department of Health Psychology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-457 Szczecin, Poland; katarzynarek90@ 123456gmail.com (K.R.-O.); monika.mak@ 123456gmail.com (M.M.); piotrpp119@ 123456gmail.com (P.P.); maksbiel@ 123456gmail.com (M.B.); krzysztofwietrzynski@ 123456gmail.com (K.W.)
                [4 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-252 Szczecin, Poland; wojciech.andrusewicz@ 123456gmail.com (W.A.); leszekm.sagan@ 123456gmail.com (L.S.)
                [5 ]Department of Psychiatry, Division of Consultation Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland; mblazej@ 123456interia.eu
                [6 ]Institute of Psychology, University of Szczecin, 71-017 Szczecin, Poland; magdalena@ 123456kerestey.net (M.K.); adrianaweronika@ 123456gmail.com (A.B.)
                [7 ]Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University in Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland; magdalena.wiedlocha@ 123456wum.edu.pl (M.W.); piotr.marcinowicz@ 123456gmail.com (P.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: etyburski@ 123456swps.edu.pl ; Tel.: +48-61-271-12-22
                Article
                jcm-10-03158
                10.3390/jcm10143158
                8304050
                34300325
                ec817709-306d-46f6-95d0-d88ea11fa53e
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                corpus callosum,working memory,planning,speed of processing,first-episode schizophrenia,chronic schizophrenia,diffusion tensor imaging,dti,fractional anisotropy,mean diffusivity

                Comments

                Comment on this article