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      Non-Calcium-Containing Phosphate Binders: Comparing Efficacy, Safety, and Other Clinical Effects

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          Abstract

          Phosphate-binder therapy for hyperphosphataemia is key to the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). Calcium-free phosphate binders are increasingly favoured since calcium-based agents potentially cause harmful calcium overload and vascular calcification that confound the benefits of reducing serum phosphorus. Several calcium-free phosphate binders are available, including the non-absorbed agent sevelamer and the absorbed agents, e.g. lanthanum and magnesium salts. Randomised controlled studies consistently show that sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate offer equivalent lowering of serum phosphorus and often effectively achieve phosphorus targets versus calcium salts, with sevelamer having a positive effect on bone disease, vascular calcification, and patient-level outcomes in dialysis patients in several trials. There is also evidence that lanthanum carbonate can improve bone health, but data are limited to its effects to vascular calcification or patient-level outcomes. Magnesium salts have also been shown to reduce serum phosphorus levels, but clear evidence is lacking on bone, vascular, or clinical outcomes. It also remains to be established whether long-term systemic accumulation of lanthanum and magnesium, in tissues including bone, has clinically relevant toxic effects. This review summarises the evidence of efficacy and safety for newer calcium-free phosphate binders in CKD-MBD management.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Effects of sevelamer and calcium-based phosphate binders on mortality in hemodialysis patients.

          Elevated serum phosphorus and calcium are associated with arterial calcification and mortality in dialysis patients. Unlike calcium-based binders, sevelamer attenuates arterial calcification but it is unknown whether sevelamer affects mortality or morbidity. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel design trial we compared sevelamer and calcium-based binders on all-cause and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular, infection, and other) in prevalent hemodialysis patients. A total of 2103 patients were initially randomized to treatment and 1068 patients completed the study. All-cause mortality rates and cause-specific mortality rates were not significantly different. There was a significant age interaction on the treatment effect. Only in patients over 65 years of age was there a significant effect of sevelamer in lowering the mortality rate. There was a suggestion that sevelamer was associated with lower overall, but not cardiovascular-linked, mortality in older patients. We suggest that further research is needed to confirm these findings.
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            Oral phosphate binders in patients with kidney failure.

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              A 1-year randomized trial of calcium acetate versus sevelamer on progression of coronary artery calcification in hemodialysis patients with comparable lipid control: the Calcium Acetate Renagel Evaluation-2 (CARE-2) study.

              Previous clinical trials showed that progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be slower in hemodialysis patients treated with sevelamer than those treated with calcium-based phosphate binders. Because sevelamer decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, we hypothesized that intensive lowering of LDL-C levels with atorvastatin in hemodialysis patients treated with calcium acetate would result in CAC progression rates similar to those in sevelamer-treated patients. Randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial with an upper bound for the noninferiority margin of 1.8. 203 prevalent hemodialysis patients at 26 dialysis centers with serum phosphorus levels greater than 5.5 mg/dL, LDL-C levels greater than 80 mg/dL, and baseline CAC scores of 30 to 7,000 units assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography. 103 patients were randomly assigned to calcium acetate, and 100 patients to sevelamer for 12 months to achieve phosphorus levels of 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL. Atorvastatin was added to achieve serum LDL-C levels less than 70 mg/dL in both groups. The primary end point was change in CAC score assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography. After 12 months, mean serum LDL-C levels decreased to 68.8 +/- 22.0 mg/dL in the calcium-acetate group and 62.4 +/- 23.0 mg/dL in the sevelamer group (P = 0.3). Geometric mean increases in CAC scores were 35% in the calcium-acetate group and 39% in the sevelamer group, with a covariate-adjusted calcium acetate-sevelamer ratio of 0.994 (95% confidence interval, 0.851 to 1.161). Treatment assignment was not blinded. The 1.8 a priori margin is large, CAC is a surrogate outcome, duration of treatment was short, and dropout rate was high. With intensive lowering of LDL-C levels for 1 year, hemodialysis patients treated with either calcium acetate or sevelamer experienced similar progression of CAC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2012
                May 2012
                28 April 2012
                : 120
                : 2
                : c108-c119
                Affiliations
                aNephrology Department, Hospital de S. João, School of Medicine, University of Porto and Nephrology Research and Development Unit, University of Porto, Porto, and bNephrology Department, Santa Cruz Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal
                Author notes
                *João M. Frazão, Hospital de S. João, Serviço de Nefrologia, Alameda Hernâni Monteiro, PT–4200 Porto (Portugal), Tel. +351 919 568 100, E-Mail jmmdfrazao@gmail.com
                Article
                337087 Nephron Clin Pract 2012;120:c108–c119
                10.1159/000337087
                22555359
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 12
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