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      Prevalence of nontyphoidal Salmonella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a university teaching hospital in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) species are important food-borne pathogens that cause gastroenteritis and bacteremia, and are responsible for a huge global burden of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalent serogroups and antibiotic resistance of NTS in our region.

          Methods

          We reviewed the serogroup distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of NTS strains obtained from 158 stool specimens of patients with acute diarrheal infection attending the outpatient and inpatient department at a university hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in the period from September, 2008 to April, 2011. A retrospective analysis of the 158 patients with NTS infection was conducted to determine the most prevalent NTS serogroups causing acute gastroenteritis and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

          Results

          At this teaching hospital, a total of 17,436 fecal samples were analyzed during the 2008–2011 study period. Of these specimens, 158 tested positive for NTS, giving an overall prevalence of 9.06 per 1,000. Of 158 NTS cases, serogroup D1 (25.3%) was the most prevalent, followed by serogroup B (19.6%), and serogroup C1 (18.9). One third of all NTS serogroup strains tested were resistant to tetracycline. The NTS strains showed resistance to ampicillin (31.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (29.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (20.9%), and cefotaxime (14.93%).

          Conclusion

          The findings of this study support the concern that use of antibiotics in animal feeds may contribute to acquisition of resistance in food-borne bacteria, such as Salmonella. Our study also concludes that the prevalence of NTS in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is very low compared with other studies worldwide.

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          Most cited references 32

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          The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis.

           B. O’Brien,  ,  Martyn Kirk (2010)
          To estimate the global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis, we synthesized existing data from laboratory-based surveillance and special studies, with a hierarchical preference to (1) prospective population-based studies, (2) "multiplier studies," (3) disease notifications, (4) returning traveler data, and (5) extrapolation. We applied incidence estimates to population projections for the 21 Global Burden of Disease regions to calculate regional numbers of cases, which were summed to provide a global number of cases. Uncertainty calculations were performed using Monte Carlo simulation. We estimated that 93.8 million cases (5th to 95th percentile, 61.8-131.6 million) of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella species occur globally each year, with 155,000 deaths (5th to 95th percentile, 39,000-303,000 deaths). Of these, we estimated 80.3 million cases were foodborne. Salmonella infection represents a considerable burden in both developing and developed countries. Efforts to reduce transmission of salmonellae by food and other routes must be implemented on a global scale.
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            FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States.

            To determine the burden of Salmonella infections in the United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) investigators conducted population-based active surveillance for culture-confirmed Salmonella infections during 1996-1999 at FoodNet laboratories. In addition, all clinical microbiology FoodNet laboratories were surveyed to determine their practices for isolating Salmonella. Telephone interviews were also conducted among residents of the FoodNet sites to determine the proportion of persons with diarrheal illness who sought medical care and the proportion who submitted stool specimens for bacterial culture. Using our model, we estimated that there were 1.4 million nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States, resulting in 168,000 physician office visits per year during 1996-1999. Including both culture-confirmed infections and those not confirmed by culture, we estimated that Salmonella infections resulted in 15,000 hospitalizations and 400 deaths annually. These estimates indicate that salmonellosis presents a major ongoing burden to public health.
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              Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000.

              Commitment to food safety is evidenced by high profile governmental initiatives around the globe. To measure progress towards targets, policy makers need to know the baseline from which they started. To describe the burden (mortality, morbidity, new presentations to general practice, hospital admissions, and hospital occupancy) and trends of indigenous foodborne disease (IFD) in England and Wales between 1992 and 2000. Routinely available surveillance data, special survey data, and hospital episode statistics were collated and arithmetic employed to estimate the burden and trends of IFD in England and Wales. Adjustments were made for underascertainment of disease through national surveillance and for foreign travel. The final estimates were compared with those from the USA. In 1995 there were an estimated 2,365,909 cases, 21,138 hospital admissions, and 718 deaths in England and Wales due to IFD. By 2000 this had fallen to 1,338,772 cases, 20,759 hospital admissions, and 480 deaths. In terms of disease burden the most important pathogens were campylobacters, salmonellas, Clostridium perfringens, verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, and Listeria monocytogenes. The ratio of food related illness in the USA to IFD in England and Wales in 2000 was 57:1. Taking into account population rates, this ratio fell to 11:1 and converged when aetiology and disease severity were considered. Reducing IFD in England and Wales means tackling campylobacter. Lowering mortality rates however also requires better control and prevention of salmonellas, Cl perfringens, L monocytogenes, and VTEC O157.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Infect Drug Resist
                Infect Drug Resist
                Infection and Drug Resistance
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-6973
                2013
                22 November 2013
                : 6
                : 199-205
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nasreldin Elhadi, Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Dammam, PO Box 2435, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia, Tel +966 3 333 1250, Email nmohammed@ 123456ud.edu.sa
                Article
                idr-6-199
                10.2147/IDR.S51184
                3840818
                © 2013 Elhadi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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