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      Biochemical Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance

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      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Insulin receptor, Serine phosphorylation, Protein kinase C, Tyrosine kinase

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          The insulin receptor tyrosine kinase is required for insulin to elicit subsequent biological signalling. Recent studies have identified several endogenous substrates of the insulin receptor kinase, including one called insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). Tyrosine phosphorylation of this substrate results in its being bound by various proteins containing src homology 2 (SH2) sites, including a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and a ras activator complex containing GRB2 and son of sevenless (SOS) 1. Decreases in the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity have been observed in various insulin-resistant states, such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A model of insulin resistance has recently been described in which the insulin receptor is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells along with the phospholipid- and calcium-activated serine/threonine kinase called protein kinase C. In this model system, activation of protein kinase C is shown to interfere with insulin receptor signalling by inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its subsequent binding by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Such a model system may be further utilized to determine the detailed biochemical basis for insulin resistance.

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          Author and article information

          Horm Res Paediatr
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          05 December 2008
          : 41
          : Suppl 2
          : 51-55
          Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Standford, Calif., USA
          183961 Horm Res 1994;41:51–55
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 5
          Symposium Session I: The Insulin and IGF Receptors: Structure and Function


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