In studies using avidin-binding assays to measure the urinary excretion of biotin, biotin is sometimes assumed to be equal to the detectable avidin-binding substances present. High performance liquid chromatography was used to separate avidin-binding substances in human urine, and the chromatographic fractions were assayed for avidin-binding substances (biotin and biotin analogs) by a sensitive, specific assay based on binding of biotin to [125I]avidin. In a study of ten normal adults, substantial amounts of avidin-binding substances other than biotin were detected, two of which were bisnorbiotin and biotin sulfoxide. These biotin analogs were initially identified by their chromatographic properties, and identities were confirmed by chemical conversion. The presence of avidin-binding substances in addition to biotin may have confounded previous measurements of the urinary excretion of biotin using avidin-binding assays. Because bioassay methods for biotin often use organisms for which one or more of these biotin analogs are growth factors, measurements of biotin in urine using some bioassay methods are likely to overestimate the concentrations of biotin.