<p class="first" id="P1">Diabetes mellitus has become one of the biggest medical challenges
of people globally. Alternative treatments for diabetes are currently being intensively
investigated to improve the treatment efficacy and life qualities for diabetic patients.
Glucose-responsive insulin release (GRIR) systems have exhibited tremendous potential
to improve the normal glycemic control and to reduce the incidence of hyperglycemia
and hypoglycemia, which further reduces potential complications in diabetic patients.
In a given GRIR drug formulation, accuracy, response time, and reversibility of the
GRIR functions are three key features enabling potential seamless control of blood
glucose level. Nevertheless, there is significant challenge preventing current GRIR
formulations from achieving them. This review article analyzes the most updated literature
and provides insights on the impact of GRIR mechanisms, and formulations on these
key features, and the relevant
<i>in vitro</i> and
<i>in vivo</i> evaluation methods to test these functions.