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      Anger regulation in disadvantaged preschool boys: Strategies, antecedents, and the development of self-control.

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          Abstract

          Emotion regulation strategies observed during an age 3 1/2 frustration task were examined in relation to (a) angry affect during the frustration task, (b) child and maternal characteristics at age 1 1/2, and (c) indices of self-control at age 6 in a sample of low-income boys (Ns varied between 189 and 310, depending on the assessment). Shifting attention away from sources of frustration and seeking information about situational constraints were associated with decreased anger. Secure attachment and positive maternal control correlated positively with effective regulatory strategy use. Individual differences in strategy use predicted self-control at school entry, but in specific rather than general ways: Reliance on attention-shifting strategies corresponded with low externalizing problems and high cooperation; reliance on information gathering corresponded with high assertiveness.

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          Most cited references31

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          Emotion Regulation: Past, Present, Future

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            Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view.

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              Empirically based assessment of the behavioral/emotional problems of 2- and 3- year-old children.

              The aim was to determine whether ratings of 2- and 3-year-olds could yield more differentiation among their behavioral/emotional problems than the internalizing-externalizing dichotomy found in previous studies. The 99-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL/2-3) was designed to extend previously developed empirically based assessment procedures to 2-and 3-year-olds. Factor analyses of the CBCL/2-3 completed by parents of 398 2- and 3-year-olds yielded six syndromes having at least eight items loading greater than or equal to .30 and designated as Social Withdrawal, Depressed, Sleep Problems, Somatic Problems, Aggressive, and Destructive. Second-order analyses showed that the first two were related to a broad-band internalizing grouping, whereas the last two were related to a broad-band externalizing grouping. Scales for the six syndromes, two broad-band groupings, and total problem score were constructed from scores obtained by 273 children in a general population sample. Mean test-retest reliability r was .87, 1-year stability r was .69, 1-year predictive r with CBCL/4-16 scales at age 4 was .63, 2-year predictive r was .55, and 3-year predictive r was .49. Children referred for mental health services scored significantly higher than nonreferred children on all scales. A lack of significant r's with the Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Bayley, and McCarthy indicate that the CBCL/2-3 taps behavioral/emotional problems independently of the developmental variance tapped by these measures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Developmental Psychology
                Developmental Psychology
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-0599
                0012-1649
                2002
                2002
                : 38
                : 2
                : 222-235
                Article
                10.1037/0012-1649.38.2.222
                11881758
                ecb2fe3f-bd31-46cd-b620-7586c26da3c5
                © 2002
                History

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