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      Self-quarantine and Weight Gain Related Risk Factors During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact that self-quarantine has on behaviors associated with weight gain.

          Methods

          This was a quantitative descriptive/correlational research design. Research announcement was sent out via Facebook to 1200 possible participants. Six surveys were condensed into a single Survey Monkey questionnaire for participants to complete. Surveys asked questions relating to risk factors linked to weight gain.

          Results

          Ninety-one percent of our sample stated they spend more time at home now than before COVID-19. Twenty-two percent of the sample stated they gained 5-10 pounds. Within those who gained 5-10 pounds, there was a significantly higher percentage of the total sample who reported they increased eating in response to sight and smell ( p = .048), eating in response to stress ( p = .041), and snacking after dinner ( p=.016) compared to those who stated they did not change those behaviors at all. There were significant relationships between predictor variables hours of sleep per night and physical activity time on reported weight gain (r=-.195, p = .021, r=-.155, p = .034, respectively).

          Conclusion

          Risk factors for weight gain during self-quarantine are inadequate sleep, snacking after dinner, lack of dietary restraint, eating in response to stress, and reduced physical activity.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Restrained and unrestrained eating.

          Nisbett's (1972) model of obesity implies that individual differences in relative deprivation (relative to set-point weight) within obese and normal weight groups should produce corresponding within-group differences in eating behavior. Normal weight subjects were separated into hypothetically deprived (high restraint) and non-deprived (low restraint) groups. The expectation that high restraint subjects' intake would vary directly with preload size while low restraint subjects would eat in inverse proportion to preload size, was confirmed. It was concluded that relative deprivation rather than obesity per se may be the cirtical determinant of individual differences in eating behavior. Consideration was given to the concept of "restraint" as an important behavioral mechanism affecting the expression of physiologically-based hungar.
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            High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women.

            Few studies examined the association between time-of-day of nutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to compare a weight loss diet with high caloric intake during breakfast to an isocaloric diet with high caloric intake at dinner. Overweight and obese women (BMI 32.4 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) ) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two isocaloric (~1400 kcal) weight loss groups, a breakfast (BF) (700 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 200 kcal dinner) or a dinner (D) group (200 kcal breakfast, 500 kcal lunch, 700 kcal dinner) for 12 weeks. The BF group showed greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Although fasting glucose, insulin, and ghrelin were reduced in both groups, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased significantly to a greater extent in the BF group. Mean triglyceride levels decreased by 33.6% in the BF group, but increased by 14.6% in the D group. Oral glucose tolerance test led to a greater decrease of glucose and insulin in the BF group. In response to meal challenges, the overall daily glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and mean hunger scores were significantly lower, whereas mean satiety scores were significantly higher in the BF group. High-calorie breakfast with reduced intake at dinner is beneficial and might be a useful alternative for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
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              A prospective study of holiday weight gain.

              It is commonly asserted that the average American gains 5 lb (2.3 kg) or more over the holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year's Day, yet few data support this statement. To estimate actual holiday-related weight variation, we measured body weight in a convenience sample of 195 adults. The subjects were weighed four times at intervals of six to eight weeks, so that weight change was determined for three periods: preholiday (from late September or early October to mid-November), holiday (from mid-November to early or mid-January), and postholiday (from early or mid-January to late February or early March). A final measurement of body weight was obtained in 165 subjects the following September or October. Data on other vital signs and self-reported health measures were obtained from the patients in order to mask the main outcome of interest. The mean (+/-SD) weight increased significantly during the holiday period (gain, 0.37+/-1.52 kg; P<0.001), but not during the preholiday period (gain, 0.18+/-1.49 kg; P=0.09) or the postholiday period (loss, 0.07+/-1.14 kg; P=0.36). As compared with their weight in late September or early October, the study subjects had an average net weight gain of 0.48+/-2.22 kg in late February or March (P=0.003). Between February or March and the next September or early October, there was no significant additional change in weight (gain, 0.21 kg+/-2.3 kg; P=0.13) for the 165 participants who returned for follow-up. The average holiday weight gain is less than commonly asserted. Since this gain is not reversed during the spring or summer months, the net 0.48-kg weight gain in the fall and winter probably contributes to the increase in body weight that frequently occurs during adulthood.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Obes Res Clin Pract
                Obes Res Clin Pract
                Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
                Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                1871-403X
                1871-403X
                21 May 2020
                21 May 2020
                Affiliations
                College of Science, Engineering, and Technology, Grand Canyon University. Phoenix, AZ, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Grand Canyon University, 3300 West Camelback Rd., AZ 85017, USA. zeigler@ 123456gcu.edu
                Article
                S1871-403X(20)30378-1
                10.1016/j.orcp.2020.05.004
                7241331
                © 2020 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                quarantine, weight gain, pandemic, covid-19

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