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      Reactive Oxygen Species Generating Systems Meeting Challenges of Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

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          Abstract

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanism is the major cause underlying the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT procedure is based on the cascade of synergistic effects between light, photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen, which greatly favor the spatiotemporal control of the treatment. This procedure has also evoked several unresolved challenges at different levels including (i) limited penetration depth of light restricts traditional PDT to only superficial tumours; (ii) oxygen reliance deprives PDT treatment of hypoxic tumours; (iii) light could complicate the phototherapeutic outcomes due to the concurrent heat generation; (iv) specific delivery of PSs to sub-cellular organelles for exerting effective toxicity remains an issue; and (v) side effects by undesirable white-light activation and self-catalysation of traditional PSs. Recent advances in nanotechnology and nanomedicine have provided new opportunities to develop ROS-generating systems through photodynamic or non-photodynamic procedures while tackling the challenges of current PDT approaches. In this review, we summarize the current status and discuss the possible opportunities of ROS generation for cancer therapy. We hope this review will spur pre-clinical research and clinical practice for ROS-mediated tumour treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          0335405
          29764
          Chem Soc Rev
          Chem Soc Rev
          Chemical Society reviews
          0306-0012
          1460-4744
          6 October 2016
          21 November 2016
          21 November 2017
          : 45
          : 23
          : 6597-6626
          Affiliations
          [a ]Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
          [b ]Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
          Author notes
          Article
          PMC5118097 PMC5118097 5118097 nihpa821140
          10.1039/c6cs00271d
          5118097
          27722328
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          Article

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