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      Effects of Type 2 Cytokines on Glomerular Epithelial Cells

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          Visceral glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) are involved in the maintenance of the filtration barrier and may play a role in immune responses. Cytokines may act on GECs and we wished to test this in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a specific product of the GEC that may play a role in glomerular permeability. We have investigated whether GECs in culture express receptors for interleukin (IL)-4, 10 and 13 (often grouped together as type 2 cytokines) and whether these cytokines alter GEC VEGF production. Type 2 cytokines were compared to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-1β which are known to upregulate VEGF production. GECs were grown from human nephrectomy specimens and cultured with and without the addition of exogenous cytokines. Messenger RNA data demonstrated the presence of IL-4 receptor α, IL-10 receptor 1 and 2, and IL-13 receptors α<sub>1</sub> and α<sub>2</sub>. However, at the protein level by flow cytometry, only IL-13 α<sub>2</sub> could be consistently demonstrated. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 inhibited production of VEGF but did not affect the pattern of isoform expression. In contrast, TBF-β and IL-1β caused an increase in VEGF production. These effects were not explained by effects on proliferation. Our data provide evidence that GECs express receptors for type 2 cytokines and that these cytokines can act directly on GECs, to decrease VEGF production.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Induces Endothelial Fenestrations In Vitro

            Abstract. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. In contrast to its transient expression during the formation of new blood vessels, VEGF and its receptors are continuously and highly expressed in some adult tissues, such as the kidney glomerulus and choroid plexus. This suggests that VEGF produced by the epithelial cells of these tissues might be involved in the induction or maintenance of fenestrations in adjacent endothelial cells expressing the VEGF receptors. Here we describe a defined in vitro culture system where fenestrae formation was induced in adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by VEGF, but not by fibroblast growth factor. A strong induction of endothelial fenestrations was observed in cocultures of endothelial cells with choroid plexus epithelial cells, or mammary epithelial cells stably transfected with cDNAs for VEGF 120 or 164, but not with untransfected cells. These results demonstrate that, in these cocultures, VEGF is sufficient to induce fenestrations in vitro. Identical results were achieved when the epithelial cells were replaced by an epithelial-derived basal lamina-type extracellular matrix, but not with collagen alone. In this defined system, VEGF-mediated induction of fenestrae was always accompanied by an increase in the number of fused diaphragmed caveolae-like vesicles. Caveolae, but not fenestrae, were labeled with a caveolin-1–specific antibody both in vivo and in vitro. VEGF stimulation led to VEGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, but no change in the distribution, phosphorylation, or protein level of caveolin-1 was observed. We conclude that VEGF in the presence of a basal lamina-type extracellular matrix specifically induces fenestrations in endothelial cells. This defined in vitro system will allow further study of the signaling mechanisms involved in fenestrae formation, modification of caveolae, and vascular permeability.
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              Interleukin 13, an interleukin 4-like cytokine that acts on monocytes and B cells, but not on T cells.

              Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a recently described protein secreted by activated T cells which is a potent in vitro modulator of human monocyte and B-cell functions. The data, reviewed here by Gerard Zurawski and Jan de Vries, shows that IL-13 shares biological activities with IL-4, their genes are closely linked in both the human and mouse genomes, and there is sequence homology between IL-13 and IL-4 proteins. Although the cloned IL-4 receptor protein (IL-4R) does not bind IL-13, it appears that the functional IL-4R and IL-13R share a common subunit that is important for signal transduction.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                27 June 2001
                : 9
                : 4
                : 275-283
                Academic Renal Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
                52622 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:275–283
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 68, Pages: 9
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52622
                Original Paper


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