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      Prevalence and Outcome of Congenital Left Ventricular Aneurysms and Diverticula in an Adult Population

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          Abstract

          Objectives: We sought to investigate the prevalence and clinical outcome of congenital left ventricular aneurysms (LVAs) and diverticula (LVD) in a large adult population. Methods: We retrospectively studied the left ventricular angiograms of 12,271 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at our institution and analyzed the medical records of the patients. Results: The overall prevalence of LVA/LVD was 0.76% (94 patients): there were 42 patients with LVA (0.34%) and 52 patients with LVD (0.42%). Men were more likely to have LVA (62 vs. 38%), and women were more likely to have LVD (75 vs. 25%; p = 0.001 for both). The mean time of follow-up was 56 ± 6 months and was focused on clinical events, rehospitalization and survival. Mortality was 6% with no cardiac death. Patients with LVD were significantly more likely to have embolic events (p = 0.04). Patients with LVA and LVD were more likely to have rhythm disturbances compared with controls (p = 0.01 for both). Incidence of syncope was not different in both groups (p = 0.4 and 0.12, respectively). There was no reported incidence of rupture. Conclusion: This large single-center study suggests that the prevalence of LVA/LVD in adults is up to 20-fold higher than previously reported. One third of the affected patients in our series had nonfatal cardiovascular events during follow-up, with a predominance of embolic events in the LVD group.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Congenital Left Ventricular Aneurysms and Diverticula: Definition, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance and Treatment

          A congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum is a rare cardiac malformation; 411 cases have been reported since its first description in 1816, and other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities have been shown in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4th embryonic week. Diagnosis can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies such as echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography, visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications; treatment options include surgical resection especially in symptomatic patients, anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, occasionally combined with class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs.
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            Clefts can be seen in the basal inferior wall of the left ventricle and the interventricular septum in healthy volunteers as well as patients by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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              An Underrecognized Subepicardial Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia Attributable to Left Ventricular Aneurysm in Patients With Normal Coronary Arteriograms

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2009
                March 2009
                02 October 2008
                : 112
                : 4
                : 287-293
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Heart Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany
                Article
                159122 Cardiology 2009;112:287–293
                10.1159/000159122
                18832824
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, References: 15, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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