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      Prevalence and Outcome of Congenital Left Ventricular Aneurysms and Diverticula in an Adult Population

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          Objectives: We sought to investigate the prevalence and clinical outcome of congenital left ventricular aneurysms (LVAs) and diverticula (LVD) in a large adult population. Methods: We retrospectively studied the left ventricular angiograms of 12,271 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at our institution and analyzed the medical records of the patients. Results: The overall prevalence of LVA/LVD was 0.76% (94 patients): there were 42 patients with LVA (0.34%) and 52 patients with LVD (0.42%). Men were more likely to have LVA (62 vs. 38%), and women were more likely to have LVD (75 vs. 25%; p = 0.001 for both). The mean time of follow-up was 56 ± 6 months and was focused on clinical events, rehospitalization and survival. Mortality was 6% with no cardiac death. Patients with LVD were significantly more likely to have embolic events (p = 0.04). Patients with LVA and LVD were more likely to have rhythm disturbances compared with controls (p = 0.01 for both). Incidence of syncope was not different in both groups (p = 0.4 and 0.12, respectively). There was no reported incidence of rupture. Conclusion: This large single-center study suggests that the prevalence of LVA/LVD in adults is up to 20-fold higher than previously reported. One third of the affected patients in our series had nonfatal cardiovascular events during follow-up, with a predominance of embolic events in the LVD group.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Congenital Left Ventricular Aneurysms and Diverticula: Definition, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance and Treatment

          A congenital left ventricular aneurysm or diverticulum is a rare cardiac malformation; 411 cases have been reported since its first description in 1816, and other cardiac, vascular or thoraco-abdominal abnormalities have been shown in about 70%. It appears to be a developmental anomaly, starting in the 4th embryonic week. Diagnosis can be made after exclusion of coronary artery disease, local or systemic inflammation or traumatic causes as well as cardiomyopathies. Clinically, most congenital left ventricular aneurysms and diverticula are asymptomatic or may cause systemic embolization, heart failure, valvular regurgitation, ventricular wall rupture, ventricular tachycardia or sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is established by imaging studies such as echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging or left ventricular angiography, visualizing the structural changes and accompanying abnormalities. Mode of treatment has to be individually tailored and depends on clinical presentation, accompanying abnormalities and possible complications; treatment options include surgical resection especially in symptomatic patients, anticoagulation after systemic embolization, radiofrequency ablation or implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in case of symptomatic ventricular tachycardia, occasionally combined with class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs.
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            Clefts can be seen in the basal inferior wall of the left ventricle and the interventricular septum in healthy volunteers as well as patients by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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              An Underrecognized Subepicardial Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia Attributable to Left Ventricular Aneurysm in Patients With Normal Coronary Arteriograms


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2009
                02 October 2008
                : 112
                : 4
                : 287-293
                Department of Cardiology, Heart Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany
                159122 Cardiology 2009;112:287–293
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, References: 15, Pages: 7
                Original Research


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