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      Heparin Treatment Reduces Glomerular Injury in Rats with Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy but Does Not Modify Tubulointerstitial Damage or the Renal Production of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta

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          Abstract

          In this study we investigated the effect of heparin on renal injury and renal transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in adriamycin (AD)-injected rats. Thirty-nine female Wistar rats were injected with AD (3.5 mg/kg body weight, i.v.) and 27 with 0.15 M NaCl solution (group C). Fifteen days later we started to inject heparin, 500 U/day, s.c., in 20 of the AD-injected animals (AD-H group). Three months after beginning treatment, urine samples were collected to quantify albumin, creatinine and TGF-β. The rats were killed and the kidneys removed for histological, immunohistochemical, ELISA and RNA studies. All AD-injected animals showed structural renal changes (p < 0.05). However, the glomerular alterations were less intense in rats from group AD-H (p < 0.05). The percentage of glomerulosclerosis was 0.11 ± 0.08 in group C, 14.7 ± 12.8 in group AD (treated only with AD) and 3.42 ± 2.3 in group AD-H. Renal cortex immunostaining for TGF-β and mRNA content of this polypeptide was higher in both groups of animals injected with AD compared to controls (p < 0.05). These animals also presented a higher rate of urinary TGF-β excretion (p < 0.05), which was 202 ± 11 in group C, 1,103 ± 580 in group AD and 1,564 ± 328 pg/mg Ucreat in group AD-H. However, TGF-β activity in the glomerular-conditioned media from the rats of group AD was higher than in the glomerular-conditioned media from the rats of group AD-H. In conclusion, treatment with heparin reduces glomerular damage in rats with AD-induced nephropathy but does not modify tubulointerstitial lesions or the renal production of TGF-β.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Suppression of experimental glomerulonephritis by antiserum against transforming growth factor beta 1.

            Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix within the damaged glomeruli, impaired filtration and proteinuria. In its progressive form, the disease destroys kidney function leading to uraemia and death, unless dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation is available. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is incompletely understood, but the eliciting factor is thought often to be an immunological injury to mesangial and/or other resident cells in the glomeruli. We have used an animal model of acute mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis to show that this disease is associated with increased production and activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), an inducer of extracellular matrix production. Here we report that administration of anti-TGF-beta 1 at the time of induction of the glomerular disease suppresses the increased production of extracellular matrix and dramatically attenuates histological manifestations of the disease. These results provide direct evidence for a causal role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathogenesis of the experimental disease and suggest a new approach to the therapy of glomerulonephritis.
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              Protein overload stimulates RANTES production by proximal tubular cells depending on NF-kappa B activation.

              Abnormal traffic of proteins through the glomerular capillary has an intrinsic renal toxicity possibly linked to the subsequent process of proximal tubular reabsorption. Here we investigated in vitro the effect of protein overload on proximal tubular cell production of RANTES, a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B)-dependent chemokine with potent chemotactic activity for monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. Confluent pig LLC-PK1 cells were incubated for 24 and 48 hours with Eagle's MEM plus 0.5% FCS containing bovine serum albumin (BSA, 1 to 30 mg/ml). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 100 U/ml) was used as a positive control. RANTES was measured in cell supernatants by ELISA. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in proximal tubular cell RANTES production. Selected experiments using transwells showed that the RANTES release was predominantly basolateral. The stimulatory effect on tubular RANTES was not specific to albumin but was shared by immunoglobulin (Ig) G. We then explored the role of NF-kappa B on BSA-induced RANTES. The NF-kappa B inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 25 microM) and sodium salicylate (10 mM) significantly reduced BSA-induced RANTES production. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extracts of LLC-PK1 exposed to BSA revealed an intense NF-kappa B activation as early as 30 minutes in a dose-dependent fashion, which was inhibited by PDTC. Supershift analysis revealed that the protein subunits of activated NF-kappa B were p65/p65 homodimer, p65/cRel, p50/p65 heterodimers. Given its chemotactic activity, RANTES released into the interstitium might promote inflammatory cell recruitment and contribute to interstitial inflammation and renal disease progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2000
                March 2000
                08 March 2000
                : 84
                : 3
                : 248-257
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPhysiology and bPathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
                Article
                45585 Nephron 2000;84:248–257
                10.1159/000045585
                10720896
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 50, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45585
                Categories
                Original Paper

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