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Boron nutritional status in Croatia

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      Abstract

      Abstract. Boron is a non-essential ubiquitous trace element in the human body. The aim of this study was to assess boron nutritional status by analyzing boron frequency distribution in the long-term biological indicator tissue of hair and the short-term biological indicator of whole blood. Hair samples were analyzed in 727 apparently healthy subjects (263 males and 464 females) and the whole blood boron was analyzed in the random subsample of them (80 males and 152 females). Samples were analyzed by the ICP-MS at the Center for Biotic Medicine, Moscow, Russia. The adequate reference range for hair boron concentration was (µg×g –1 ) 0.771 – 6.510 for men and distinctly lower 0.472 – 3.89 for women; there was no detectable difference in the whole blood boron for the adequate reference range between men (0.020 – 0.078) and women (0019 – 0.062). Boron may play an essential role in the metabolism of the connective tissue of the biological bone matrix.


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      THE ENVIRONMENT AND DISEASE: ASSOCIATION OR CAUSATION?

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        Metal and metalloid multi-elementary ICP-MS validation in whole blood, plasma, urine and hair. Reference values.

        Four multi-elementary metal and metalloid quantification methods using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were developed and validated in human whole blood, plasma, urine and hair by means of a single preparation procedure for each sample. The ICP-MS measurements were performed using a Thermo Elemental X7CCT series and PlasmaLab software without a dynamic reaction cell. With this procedure 27-32 elements can be simultaneously quantified in biological matrices: Li, Be, B, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, W, Pt, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, U. Whole blood, plasma and urine samples (0.4 ml each) were diluted with purified water, acid, triton X100 and butanol. Rhodium was used as internal standard. The urine sample results were corrected for enzymatic creatinine determination. Twenty-five milligrams hair samples were acid mineralized after a decontamination procedure and diluted as previously described for biological fluids. To be validated, each element had to show linearity with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99. The intra-assay and inter-assay inaccuracy, measured as the variation coefficient, were below 5 and 10% respectively. Global performance was assessed by a quality control program. Our laboratory is a registered participant of the Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (Sainte-Foy, Canada) inter-laboratory comparison program for whole blood, urine, and beard hair of non-occupationally exposed individuals spiked with selected elements. In our study multi-element metal and metalloid analysis was assessed for 27 elements in whole blood, 27 elements in plasma, 30 elements in urine and 32 elements in hair, from 0 to 25, or 250 to 1000 ng/ml, depending on the element. Quantification limits ranged from 0.002 ng/ml (U) to 8.1 ng/ml (Al) for whole blood, from 0.002 ng/ml (U) to 7.7 ng/ml (Al) for plasma, from 0.001 ng/ml (U) to 2.2 ng/ml (Se) for urine, and from 0.2 pg/mg (Tl) to 0.5 ng/mg (B) for hair. Normal values were determined in whole blood (n=100), plasma (n=100), urine (n=100), and hair (n=45) of healthy volunteers, leading to approximately 10,000 analyses. All results are presented and discussed. Clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology applications are also reported. ICP-MS has made significant advances in the field of clinical biology, particularly in toxicological analysis. This is due to the use of extremely effective equipment that permits better clinical and forensic toxicological analysis of metal and metalloid status of each individual patient.
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          Is Open Access

          Applying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: how data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology

          In 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill published nine “viewpoints” to help determine if observed epidemiologic associations are causal. Since then, the “Bradford Hill Criteria” have become the most frequently cited framework for causal inference in epidemiologic studies. However, when Hill published his causal guidelines—just 12 years after the double-helix model for DNA was first suggested and 25 years before the Human Genome Project began—disease causation was understood on a more elementary level than it is today. Advancements in genetics, molecular biology, toxicology, exposure science, and statistics have increased our analytical capabilities for exploring potential cause-and-effect relationships, and have resulted in a greater understanding of the complexity behind human disease onset and progression. These additional tools for causal inference necessitate a re-evaluation of how each Bradford Hill criterion should be interpreted when considering a variety of data types beyond classic epidemiology studies. Herein, we explore the implications of data integration on the interpretation and application of the criteria. Using examples of recently discovered exposure–response associations in human disease, we discuss novel ways by which researchers can apply and interpret the Bradford Hill criteria when considering data gathered using modern molecular techniques, such as epigenetics, biomarkers, mechanistic toxicology, and genotoxicology.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Trace Elements and Electrolytes
            TE
            Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle
            0946-2104
            January 10 2018
            10.5414/TEX01514
            © 2018
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