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      Intraflagellar Transport Dynein is Autoinhibited by Trapping of its Mechanical and Track-Binding Elements

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          Abstract

          Cilia are multi-functional organelles that are constructed using intraflagellar transport (IFT) of cargo to and from their tip. It is widely held that the retrograde IFT motor, dynein-2, must be controlled in order to reach the ciliary tip and then unleashed to power the return journey. However, the mechanism is unknown. Here, we systematically define the mechanochemistry of human dynein-2 motors as monomers, dimers, and multi-motor assemblies with kinesin-II. Combining these data with insights from single-particle electron microscopy, we discover that dynein-2 dimers are intrinsically autoinhibited. Inhibition is mediated by trapping dynein-2’s mechanical “linker” and “stalk” domains within a novel motor-motor interface. We find that linker-mediated inhibition enables efficient transport of dynein-2 by kinesin-II in vitro. These results suggest a conserved mechanism for autoregulation among dimeric dyneins, which is exploited as a switch for dynein-2’s recycling activity during IFT.

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            Functions and mechanics of dynein motor proteins.

            Fuelled by ATP hydrolysis, dyneins generate force and movement on microtubules in a wealth of biological processes, including ciliary beating, cell division and intracellular transport. The large mass and complexity of dynein motors have made elucidating their mechanisms a sizable task. Yet, through a combination of approaches, including X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, single-molecule assays and biochemical experiments, important progress has been made towards understanding how these giant motor proteins work. From these studies, a model for the mechanochemical cycle of dynein is emerging, in which nucleotide-driven flexing motions within the AAA+ ring of dynein alter the affinity of its microtubule-binding stalk and reshape its mechanical element to generate movement.
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              Single-molecule analysis of dynein processivity and stepping behavior.

              Cytoplasmic dynein, the 1.2 MDa motor driving minus-end-directed motility, has been reported to move processively along microtubules, but its mechanism of motility remains poorly understood. Here, using S. cerevisiae to produce recombinant dynein with a chemically controlled dimerization switch, we show by structural and single-molecule analysis that processivity requires two dynein motor domains but not dynein's tail domain or any associated subunits. Dynein advances most frequently in 8 nm steps, although longer as well as side and backward steps are observed. Individual motor domains show a different stepping pattern, which is best explained by the two motor domains shuffling in an alternating manner between rear and forward positions. Our results suggest that cytoplasmic dynein moves processively through the coordination of its two motor domains, but its variable step size and direction suggest a considerable diffusional component to its step, which differs from Kinesin-1 and is more akin to myosin VI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                101186374
                31761
                Nat Struct Mol Biol
                Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
                Nature structural & molecular biology
                1545-9993
                1545-9985
                27 February 2017
                10 April 2017
                May 2017
                10 October 2017
                : 24
                : 5
                : 461-468
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck, London, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence should be addressed to A.J.R. ( a.roberts@ 123456mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk ).
                Article
                EMS71690
                10.1038/nsmb.3391
                5420313
                28394326

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                Molecular biology

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