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      Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes and Other Extracellular Vesicles as New Remedies in the Therapy of Inflammatory Diseases

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          Abstract

          There is growing evidence that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based immunosuppression was mainly attributed to the effects of MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs). MSC-EVs are enriched with MSC-sourced bioactive molecules (messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNAs (miRNAs), cytokines, chemokines, immunomodulatory factors) that regulate phenotype, function and homing of immune cells. In this review article we emphasized current knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of MSC-EVs in attenuation of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We described the disease-specific cellular targets of MSC-EVs and defined MSC-sourced molecules, which were responsible for MSC-EV-based immunosuppression. Results obtained in a large number of experimental studies revealed that both local and systemic administration of MSC-EVs efficiently suppressed detrimental immune response in inflamed tissues and promoted survival and regeneration of injured parenchymal cells. MSC-EVs-based anti-inflammatory effects were relied on the delivery of immunoregulatory miRNAs and immunomodulatory proteins in inflammatory immune cells (M1 macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), CD4+Th1 and Th17 cells), enabling their phenotypic conversion into immunosuppressive M2 macrophages, tolerogenic DCs and T regulatory cells. Additionally, through the delivery of mRNAs and miRNAs, MSC-EVs activated autophagy and/or inhibited apoptosis, necrosis and oxidative stress in injured hepatocytes, neurons, retinal cells, lung, gut and renal epithelial cells, promoting their survival and regeneration.

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          Most cited references 109

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          Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by systemic injection of targeted exosomes.

          To realize the therapeutic potential of RNA drugs, efficient, tissue-specific and nonimmunogenic delivery technologies must be developed. Here we show that exosomes-endogenous nano-vesicles that transport RNAs and proteins-can deliver short interfering (si)RNA to the brain in mice. To reduce immunogenicity, we used self-derived dendritic cells for exosome production. Targeting was achieved by engineering the dendritic cells to express Lamp2b, an exosomal membrane protein, fused to the neuron-specific RVG peptide. Purified exosomes were loaded with exogenous siRNA by electroporation. Intravenously injected RVG-targeted exosomes delivered GAPDH siRNA specifically to neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in a specific gene knockdown. Pre-exposure to RVG exosomes did not attenuate knockdown, and non-specific uptake in other tissues was not observed. The therapeutic potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery was demonstrated by the strong mRNA (60%) and protein (62%) knockdown of BACE1, a therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, in wild-type mice.
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            Exosome secreted by MSC reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

            Human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (CM) was previously shown to mediate cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through large complexes of 50-100 nm. Here we show that these MSCs secreted 50- to 100-nm particles. These particles could be visualized by electron microscopy and were shown to be phospholipid vesicles consisting of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylcholine. They contained coimmunoprecipitating exosome-associated proteins, e.g., CD81, CD9, and Alix. These particles were purified as a homogeneous population of particles with a hydrodynamic radius of 55-65 nm by size-exclusion fractionation on a HPLC. Together these observations indicated that these particles are exosomes. These purified exosomes reduced infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, MSC mediated its cardioprotective paracrine effect by secreting exosomes. This novel role of exosomes highlights a new perspective into intercellular mediation of tissue injury and repair, and engenders novel approaches to the development of biologics for tissue repair. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles protect against acute tubular injury.

              Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). The mechanism may involve paracrine factors promoting proliferation of surviving intrinsic epithelial cells, but these factors remain unknown. In the current study, we found that microvesicles derived from human bone marrow MSCs stimulated proliferation in vitro and conferred resistance of tubular epithelial cells to apoptosis. The biologic action of microvesicles required their CD44- and beta1-integrin-dependent incorporation into tubular cells. In vivo, microvesicles accelerated the morphologic and functional recovery of glycerol-induced AKI in SCID mice by inducing proliferation of tubular cells. The effect of microvesicles on the recovery of AKI was similar to the effect of human MSCs. RNase abolished the aforementioned effects of microvesicles in vitro and in vivo, suggesting RNA-dependent biologic effects. Microarray analysis and quantitative real time PCR of microvesicle-RNA extracts indicate that microvesicles shuttle a specific subset of cellular mRNA, such as mRNAs associated with the mesenchymal phenotype and with control of transcription, proliferation, and immunoregulation. These results suggest that microvesicles derived from MSCs may activate a proliferative program in surviving tubular cells after injury via a horizontal transfer of mRNA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                11 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 8
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Regenerative Processing Plant, LLC, 34176 US Highway 19 N Palm Harbor, Palm Harbor, FL 34684, USA; dr.harrell@ 123456regenerativeplant.org
                [2 ]Department for Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 69 Svetozar Markovic Street, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia; nemanjajovicic.kg@ 123456gmail.com (N.J.); arne@ 123456medf.kg.ac.rs (N.A.)
                [3 ]Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, 2 Baltzerstrasse, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; valentin.djonov@ 123456ana.unibe.ch
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: drvolarevic@ 123456yahoo.com ; Tel./Fax: +381-3430-6800
                Article
                cells-08-01605
                10.3390/cells8121605
                6952783
                31835680
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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