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      Effects of infections with five sexually transmitted pathogens on sperm quality

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          Abstract

          Objective

          This study investigated the prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium in the semen of Korean infertile couples and their associations with sperm quality.

          Methods

          Semen specimens were collected from 400 men who underwent a fertility evaluation. Infection with above five pathogens was assessed in each specimen. Sperm quality was compared in the pathogen-infected group and the non-infected group.

          Results

          The infection rates of human papillomavirus, C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum, M. hominis, and M. genitalium in the study subjects were 1.57%, 0.79%, 16.80%, 4.46%, and 1.31%, respectively. The rate of morphological normality in the U. urealyticum-infected group was significantly lower than in those not infected with U. urealyticum. In a subgroup analysis of normozoospermic samples, the semen volume and the total sperm count in the pathogen-infected group were significantly lower than in the non-infected group.

          Conclusion

          Our results suggest that infection with U. urealyticum alone and any of the five sexually transmitted infections are likely to affect sperm morphology and semen volume, respectively.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Prevalence of HPV infection among men: A systematic review of the literature.

          Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection; an estimated 6.2 million persons are newly infected every year in the United States. There are limited data on HPV infection in heterosexual men. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching MEDLINE using the terms "human papillomavirus," "HPV," "male," "seroprevalence," and "serology" to retrieve articles published from 1 January 1990 to 1 February 2006. We included studies that had data on population characteristics and that evaluated male genital anatomic sites or specimens for HPV DNA or included assessments of seropositivity to HPV type 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. We excluded studies that had been conducted only in children or immunocompromised persons (HIV infected, transplant recipients, or elderly). We included a total of 40 publications on HPV DNA detection and risk factors for HPV in men; 27 evaluated multiple anatomic sites or specimens, 10 evaluated a single site or specimen, and 3 evaluated risk factors or optimal anatomic sites/specimens for HPV detection. Twelve studies assessed site- or specimen-specific HPV DNA detection. HPV prevalence in men was 1.3%-72.9% in studies in which multiple anatomic sites or specimens were evaluated; 15 (56%) of these studies reported > or =20% HPV prevalence. HPV prevalence varied on the basis of sampling, processing methods, and the anatomic site(s) or specimen(s) sampled. We included 15 publications reporting HPV seroprevalence. Rates of seropositivity depended on the population, HPV type, and methods used. In 9 studies that evaluated both men and women, all but 1 demonstrated that HPV seroprevalence was lower in men than in women. HPV infection is highly prevalent in sexually active men and can be detected by use of a variety of specimens and methods. There have been few natural-history studies and no transmission studies of HPV in men. The information that we have reviewed may be useful for future natural-history studies and for modeling the potential impact of a prophylactic HPV vaccine.
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            Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer.

            Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries. It has been estimated to have been responsible for almost 260 000 deaths annually, of which about 80% occurred in developing countries. Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a variable fraction of neoplastic lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. There are more than 100 known HPV genotypes, at least 15 of which can cause cancer of the cervix and other sites. HPV 16 and 18, the two most common oncogenic types, cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide. HPV, especially genotypes 6 and 11, can also cause genital warts. HPV is highly transmissible and it is now considered the most common sexually transmitted infection in most populations. Although most women infected with the virus become negative within 2 years, women with persistent high-risk HPV infections are at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer. Since the identification of HPV as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, HPV-based technology has become the centre of novel primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies by the introduction of HPV testing in screening and of HPV vaccines in preadolescent girls and young women. If implemented widely and wisely the deployment of these protocols has the potential to complete Papanicolaou's goal of cervical cancer eradication by extending the benefits of prevention to the developing populations of the world.
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              Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue.

               J M Palefsky (2010)
              The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer. However, male HPV infection is also an important concern, both for the disease burden in men and for the risk of transmission to women. HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers. The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Penile HPV infection is very common among heterosexual men and remains high throughout a wide range of ages. Likewise, anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia are very common throughout a wide range of ages in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Other HPV-related diseases of clinical importance in men include condylomata acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly efficacious in the prevention of genital warts in women and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In addition, recent interim data have shown that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is highly effective in reducing external genital lesions in young men. Although the protective efficacy of HPV vaccination in men has not yet been fully established-pending the outcome of public policy discussions and cost-efficacy studies-there may be a strong rationale for vaccinating boys, similar to girls, at an early age when they have had limited or no prior sexual activity.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anatomy · Cell Biology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Urology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [3 ]Laboratory of Research and Development for Genomics, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [4 ]Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [5 ]Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [6 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [7 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Tae Jin Kim. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, 17 Seoae-ro 1-gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04619, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2000-7577, Fax: +82-2-2000-7183, kimonc111@ 123456naver.com
                Journal
                Clin Exp Reprod Med
                Clin Exp Reprod Med
                CERM
                Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
                The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine
                2233-8233
                2233-8241
                December 2017
                31 December 2017
                : 44
                : 4
                : 207-213
                10.5653/cerm.2017.44.4.207
                5783918
                Copyright © 2017. The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Health and Welfare, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003625;
                Award ID: A10206510111250100
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725;
                Award ID: NRF-2012R1A1A4A01014504
                Categories
                Original Article

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